In the 19th century a German Jew named Karl Marx outlined a new economic theory with political overtones. He put his ideas down in a book called “Das Kapital”. His ideas were revolutionary and at once raised the hackles of the capitalistic world. Fervor swept across the world and Europe in particular and this led to the famous October revolution of 1917, which brought the Bolsheviks to power in Russia. Times have now changed and so called Soviet state collapsed.
Walter Rauschenbusch is a clergyman and a theology professor who led the social movement in the United States. Rauschenbusch linked Christianity to emerging theories of democratic socialism which he believed would lead to a more equality and a fair society. The movement was lead between 1870 to 1920. The movement advocators interpreted that the Kingdom of God as requiring social as well as individual salvation and sought the betterment of the industrialized society as well as distinct salvation and pursued the betterment of industrialized society through the application of the bible. The Social Gospel was particularly publicized among liberal Protestants minster, which included Washington Gladden and Lyman Abbot.
Though he came from a poor family, he went on to become a true academic, a political theorist and practitioner and one of the greatest revolutionaries the African continent has ever birthed. Kwame went to elementary school where his father was a locksmith, a school named Assini. Here George Fischer, a German Catholic Priest significantly influenced his education at a young age. Kwame was a Secondary school teacher by the age of 17. He went on to obtain his Teachers Certificate from Prince of Wales College at Achimoto ( Formerly Government Training College, Accra), where he was exposed to politics for the first
Adam Smith – Father of Economics Thoughts (1723-1790) – was a social Scottish philosopher, scholar, and political economist. He went to Burgh School where he studied mathematics, Latin, writing and history. At the age of 14, he attended the University of Glasgow, and on 1740, he went to Oxford. In 1748, He started to lecture at the University of Edinburg where he met an economist named David Hume, then they became best friends. Smith’s thoughts and ideas where reflecting the lights of the start of the industrial revolution.
The two prominent names: Weber and Durkheim; considered the “founding fathers of Sociology”. Their writing in the late 19th century considered to be revolution and brought profound changes in the modern life. Although, both of these men studied the society, its structure and trends, but their methodology and theoretical approach were different. In the early years of his life, Durkheim was influenced and impressed by the evolutionary perspective of Herbert Spencer and later, with the works of August Comte. Whereas, Weber owed his approach much to the Neo-Kantian Philosophy.
George Herbert Mead is known as one of the most influential sociologists to emerge from the late 1800s. His pragmatic philosophies helped lead the way to more micro-oriented thinking (Knapp, 2018). Intellectual achievement was a strong value held by both of his parent’s families (Coser, 2003 p. 341). His father came from a line of farmers and clergymen (Coser, 2003 p. 341). He was born in South Hadley, Massachusetts (Coser, 2003 p. 341), however, at the age of seven, his father began a new position as the chair of homiletics at Oberlin College in Ohio (Coser, 2003 p. 341).
Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1980) Jean Paul Sartre was born in Paris in 1905. After losing his father at a young age, he moved in with his grandfather Karl Schweitzer, who was a respected writer of topics such as religion and philosophy. Karl played an important role in Jean Paul’s life, even though he was quiet strict and highly religious, he recognised Sartre’s unique mind, and somewhat influenced him. When Jean Paul finished High School in Paris, and having briefly served in the army, he gained a place at the University Ecole Normale Supérieure in 1924 to 1929, where he studied Philosophy. While studying he meet Simone de Beauvoir, who would eventually mean a great deal to Sartre as she became his lifelong friend up until his death in 1980.
Marxism Marxism is a theory created by Karl Marx’s followers. Although Marx expressed that he did not consider him as a Marxist, and that his followers took advantage of his radical newspaper columns for their own purposes and twisted his words, however Marxism became very popular during the 19th century. Marxism consists mostly of Marx’s theory called class theory or class structure. Most of Marx’s theory includes works from other well-known social scientists like E.P Thompson and Mario Tronti, who in some way were the inspiration for Marx to write his books about sociological thinking. Marxism has a style that is unique.
In his first book, The Birth of tragedy from the Spirit of Music, he is building on his classical studies to develop a philosophy of culture through a critique of classical ideals of order and harmony. Basically it is a comparative work which offers an account of ancient Greek tragedy in order to gain an insight into the problems of art and existence in the present. Ancient Greece is placed against modern Europe, Germany in particular. We can also see the great influence of philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer and the composer Richard Wagner in this
Karl Popper: Problem of Demarcation and Falsification as Criterion of Demarcation Karl Raimond Popper, born in July 1902 in Vienna, was one of the most influential philosopher of science and political thinker. Since his childhood only he had interests in social and political issues. This made him join Association of Socialist School Students, an association based on Marxist ideology. But very soon he found the theory to be disillusioned of the doctrine character of the theory itself, and then he entirely disengaged himself with it and became supporter of social liberalism all his life. This in fact, helped him clear his thoughts for his coming theory on problem of demarcation.