The voices of history and tradition are present in quite a few of Jean-Paul Sartre’s pieces. Jean-Paul Sartre, born Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre, was a very complex man. In the 1940’s, Sartre served in the military during World War II. The war heavily influenced Sartre, causing him to relate many of his pieces to his experiences in World War II. Sartre was a French philosopher, and was a major contributor to existentialism - the 20th century way of thinking. Perhaps Sartre 's obscure way of thinking can be traced back to his childhood - he was a small and cross-eyed little boy who generally did not fit in with the “ordinary” children. The way that he was treated and viewed by others forced Sartre, at an early age, to view people, thoughts, …show more content…
This particular piece, No Exit, was written while Sartre was involved in World War II. Sartre was originally drafted into the French army as a meteorologist, but was later captured by German troops and was held prisoner for nine months. While he was held captive, Sartre wrote No Exit, which portrayed what Sartre had lived through during his encounter with the German army. Sartre wrote this iconic piece in order for his readers to interpret and to understand that the idea of Hell can come in all different forms - that Hell is not always the usual fiery pits and brimstone type of Hell like one is traditionally led to …show more content…
One would also be able to catch a glimpse of the history of Sartre 's own life through his characters. Sartre creates many characters that not only represent himself, but also represent others from his past. One example would be the character Inez from No Exit. Inez speaks, as well as acts, in a way that represents Sartre. She speaks as an existentialist would speak, and she shares many of Sartre’s personal thoughts and beliefs. As it is stated, “INEZ: We are all tarred with the same brush. … we are criminals – murderers – all three of us. We 're in Hell, my pets; they never make mistakes, and people aren’t damned for nothing” (No Exit 16). Sartre used not only Inez, but the character Olga to signify another real life character of his as well. Sartre and his lover, Simone De Beauvoir, were both having an affair with a woman named Olga. Her name later reappeared in Sartre’s No Exit. In the story, the character Estelle is looking down onto earth after her funeral that was earlier that morning. Estelle looks down to not only see her friend, Olga, but also her husband, Peter, accompanying her. Olga, while dancing, is pursuing Estelle 's husband: ESTELLE: … Oh, just look at her face, all scarlet, like a
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Life of an Influential Author “Everyone has a moment in history which belongs particularly to him, and he carries the stamp of that passing moment forever.” John Knowles lived during the Contemporary Era, which spanned from 1945 until the present time. Growing up in war times shaped John Knowles into the writer he was with the outlook on life he portrayed. As a youth during World War I, John Knowles attended a private boy’s school called Phillips Exeter Academy between the years 1942-1945.
Dominique’s personality was affected negatively by society in his early years. His mother, the ghetto, and even the Catholic Church all affected Dominique. He did not have much of a mother figure in his life. The community he lived in shaped the way he viewed his peers. Dominique was also raped at his Catholic school by a priest.
This is apparent through Arthur Koestler’s novel, Darkness at Noon. This novel brings the reader into the scenario of being a prisoner of political issues of Joseph Stalin’s time. Within the book, the character Rubashov has been arrested and is in prison. It is within these walls, that he is in Hell, a humanistic Hell. “The walls on both sides were of solid brick, which would stifle the sound of tapping, but where the heating and drain pipe penetrated it, it had been plastered and resounded quite well; besides, the heating pipe itself seemed to be noise-conducting.
In Sartre’s play No Exit the three main characters, Inez, Estelle and Garcin are placed in Hell with each other with no idea of why they are put together. Each of the characters has lived different experiences and committed different crimes, which can be described by one of the seven deadly sins. The seven deadly sins are lust, envy, greed, sloth, wrath, gluttony, and pride. Inez, Estelle and Garcin are “linked together” and even have shared a sin (29). The sin that is used to characterize each character is experienced in their lives and in Hell.
Many of us sometimes lie awake thinking of life, death, and what happens after. Nobody knows for certain what happens once the soul leaves the body, we don’t know if there will be life after death, we don’t know if we will be punished for all that we’ve done wrong, and for that reason many of us fear death and try to stay on the straight, morally right path in order to avoid Hell. In the epic poem, The Inferno, written by Dante Alighieri, we get a sense of what Hell is like, or at least Alighieri’s rendition of Hell. After venturing from the straight path, Alighieri’s self-based character, Dante, finds himself on the verge of entering Hell. Dante’s figure for human reason, Virgil, a Virtuous Pagan, leads Dante through the nine circles of Hell
In Kafka 's work The Metamorphosis and in In the Penal Colony the themes and ideas portrayed are nothing less than chaotic. But it is in this chaos that he creates an efficient way of portraying the ideas of philosophical thought to his readers. He shows these ideas without directly stating any one track of thought to follow which allows each reader to form the book to their ways of thought rather than molding their outlook to existential thought. Kafka chooses to convey the messages of absurdism, essentialism and existentialism through the protagonist 's reactions when their purpose is brought into question. He does this by completely revoking purpose in The Metamorphosis and question the legitimacy of the officer’s purpose in In the Penal Colony.
When the door finally opens, he says: “I’m not going,” (Sartre 48). If he was truly brave, Cradeau should have stepped up and went through the door. Since he was truly afraid and fearful about what was to come, he decided to stay in the environment called Hell, a place he was familiar with. Later, he tries to convince Inez, who keeps saying and judging that Cradeau is a coward. Cradeau says, “It’s the only thing I want.
In the article “Jean-Paul Sartre on Bad Faith”, by Neel Burton, a British psychiatrist, philosopher, writer, and educator, claims that bad faith is “ the habit that people have of deceiving themselves into thinking that they do not have the freedom to make choices for fear of the potential consequences of making a choice.”. He supports this claim by first giving an example of someone with bad faith. Then, Burton analyses why this person has bad faith. One of the examples was a waiter that does everything that a waiter should do. This waiter would have bad faith because in order to act as a waiter, the waiter must be aware that he or she is not a waiter, but “a conscious human being who is deceiving himself that he is a waiter.
Hell -- very abstract in nature -- is usually very vaguely defined. This is because the term finds itself stemming from a plethora of different individuals, cultures, and even religions. Even with all these different sources however; in most cases there is usually a strong correlation when it comes to the types of imagery associated with hell. It is usually described as a place of torture devices, darkness, and flames. Likewise in the play No Exit, the author Jean-Paul Sartre has his own interpretation of hell.
In America in the 1940’s society viewed men as the superior gender, despite women slowly gaining more rights. They possessed superiority in job wages, political positions, marriages, and education. Women faced continuous discrimination and inferiority. In Jean Paul-Sartre’s No Exit which takes place in the during this time, different power dynamics are implemented throughout the play. Garcin, a male protagonist, experiences this patriarchal superiority on earth.
The idea of Hell itself in most Judeo-Christian denominations begins with the simple premise of being a place for those who have either sinned or turned his or her back on God, damning them to an eternity of punishment and suffering. A major idea presented in Inferno is the idea of the contrapasso. Justin Steinburg in his essay “Dante’s Justice? A Reapprasial of the Contrapasso” summarizes the idea by explaining it as a balance of crime and punishment in Hell. In canto 28 in the Inferno, the Dante first poses the idea in text when Bertran de Born must carry his own head in his arms after separating father from son.
Our past will always be part of our present. Jean-Paul Sartre, a 1940’s French existentialist poet, wrote the play No Exit and he made it clear through Joseph Garcin humans are always stuck in their past. In the play, Sartre provided many literary devices to enrich the reader's experience of the play. The first main character introduced, Joseph Garcin, asks the Valet questions about his post death location. The Valet enlightens Garcin with the harsh truth that nothing will happen to them, because their bodies have become incapable of doing much else other than think.
Contemporary society faces a major issue, a slippery slope that threatens the future of the world. The fallacy claims that we must pressure our children to be the best at everything, from school to hobbies, or they will fail later in life. This mindset is logically flawed, as success and failure ought to not be defined by the size of your house or how many cars an individual has. Instead, there should be no formal definition of what it means to be successful; since it can only be defined by existing. Therefore, I qualify that, not only aimless play, but also truly existing as defined by Jean-Paul Sartre as “Existence precedes essence,” are the most important and fundamental factors to achieving success.
No Exit is a work of literature – a play to be exact – which is a nice change from the usual articles that we read in class. Written by philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, the play’s themes illustrate a few of his philosophical concepts, most importantly “bad faith” which is a “refusal to confront facts and/or choices” especially in front of society. We see bad faith almost immediately and especially obviously in the character Estelle, a narcissistic woman who made a fuss over the fact that her dress didn’t match the remaining couch and that her make up wasn’t proper. Estelle is so preoccupied by what people think of her that she becomes delirious over the fact that there isn’t a mirror and she has to go by what Inez tells her – a woman Estelle doesn’t trust in the very least. Her bad faith goes to the extreme extent