For many years great philosophers such as Socrates and Plato have defined and given great understanding into life and its moral ethics. Socrates was born in Athens in 469 BC. He was known to be one of the wisest men on earth. Socrates is credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. Many individuals often as the question in their mind, “Who is the real Socrates?” Socrates never wrote philosophical text, his knowledge and philosophies were expresses based on the writings of his students such as Xenophon, Aristotle and Plato. Plato has been the most influential and valuable of all his students, based on Socrates philosophy and life. Plato was born in Athens, Greece in 427 BC. He was known as the “divine teacher”. He founded the first institution of higher learning in the Western world which was called, “The Academy”. Plato taught a range of subjects including.: ethics, religion, mathematics and philosophy. Plato’s work is among the world’s greatest literatures that have been written. Some of his …show more content…
Among a group of friends Socrates asked the question “What is Justice”. Everyone had their own meaning of what justice truly was. As everyone spoke, Socrates listened but never stated his true meaning of justice. Cephalus definitions of justice mean living up to your legal obligations and being honest () Socrates explained the justice is more than honoring legal obligations. Socrates gave different explanations as to why this statement is not true. For example he stated, “Suppose that a friend when in his right mind has deposited arms with me and he asks for them when he is not in his right mind, ought I to give them back to him?” This quote meant if a person is in a right mind of state they should be allowed to have a weapon. If the person is in the wrong mind of state should they be allowed to have a weapon because it is their legal obligation? Therefore this would be an act of unjust since many lives would be in
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The phenomenon "Socrates" surrounds every aspect of politics, culture, economic and social landscape in the current world. Indeed, there are several books on Socrates on every bookshelf in the world. Most of these books written about Socrates are dialogues of which one of them is named Gorgias. As it is already acknowledged, several books written by Plato are about Socrates. Gorgias happens to be one of his collections of dialogues involving Socrates and other characters.
the Republic, Socrates argues that justice ought to be valued both for its own sake and for the sake of its consequences (358a1–3). His interlocutors Glaucon and Adeimantus have reported a number of arguments to the effect that the value of justice lies purely in the rewards and reputation that are the usual consequence of being seen to be just, and have asked Socrates to say what justice is and to show that justice is always intrinsically better than is acting contrary to justice when doing so would win you more non-moral goods. Glaucon presents these arguments as renewing Thrasymachus’ Book 1 position that justice is “another’s good” (358b–c, cf. 343c), which Thrasymachus had associated with the claim that the rulers in any constitution frame
The version of Socrates presented in both The Apology, Crito, and The Republic could very well be two different versions of Socrates as presented by Plato. However, both versions of Socrates have one thing in common: they both value the importance of philosophy and they both defend philosophy as something that is important to humanity. The Apology is Socrates defending not only himself, but also philosophy as an area of study that could be useful to the city of Athens. Socrates is trying to defend himself and his study and he tries to distance himself from the sophists in that they charge for money.
In Apology, Socrates faces possible execution as he stands trial in front of his fellow Athenian men. This jury of men must decide whether Socrates has acted impiously against the gods and if he has corrupted the youth of Athens. Socrates claims in his defense that he wants to live a private life, away from public affairs and teachings in Athens. He instead wants to focus on self-examination and learning truths from those in Athens through inquiry. Socrates argues that "a [man] who really fights for justice must lead a private, not a public, life if [he] is to survive for even a short time" (32a).
Near the end of Socrates’ life, many contemporaries suspected of Socrates’ disfavorable attitude towards the Athenian state and established religion. In acknowledgement of these suspicions, the Athenian state charged 70 year old Socrates in 399 B.C. for impiety and corrupting the minds of the young of Athens as the result of introducing them to new religious studies. In Ancient Greece, citizens believed that the gods protected their cities from natural disasters and invasions from other cities. For that reason, the State deemed Socrates to be endangering Athens by teaching the young to disrespect the gods of the city. Although in reality, Socrates had done no such thing and knew as much (Plato 29-30).
Socrates started his life as an average Athen citizen. His parents worked, making an honest living. But as Socrates grew up, he began to realize that his mind questioned things and wondered how come no one else questioned the same things or at least think about the answers to the questions that were not answered. So, as his mind kept wandering, he began to acknowledge the questions that were not answered and sought for those answers. He ended up believing and teaching things to other people, whether it went against the way the Athen government or not, he still continued his work.
According to Socrates perspective, the democracy of Athens was corrupt and even though they courts were made in such a way that everyone was judged fairly, it wasn’t such because there were no rules or principles set forth. When a person was brought to court in the Athenian court and the person spoke against the jurors or offended them, he or she could be prosecuted based on that. In summary, judgment was passed based on emotion rather than on justice. In the Apology, Socrates stated, “my present request seems a just one, for you to pay no attention to my manner of speech-
When Aristotle turned 17, he was sent to Athens to pursue higher education than which he would have received in the small seaport town he was raised. There in Athens, Aristotle enrolled in Plato’s The Academy. The Academy was considered the premier learning institution of the known world. Plato called Aristotle “the mind of the school”, even though they did not agree on the fundamental parts of their individual philosophies. Aristotle
Socrates advised people to think critically and express themselves, since at the time Athens allowed for free speech. He also created what is now referred to as the Socratic Method, a form of critical thinking based off of a question and answer form of teaching. Socrates “taught people to question their beliefs about such issues as the proper role of government.” Socrates’ take on free expression and methods of questioning authority are ultimately what led to his demise.
Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and a student at PLATO’S Academy. After Plato’s death, Aristotle left the academy and traveled the country before returning to Athens in 334 BC where he founded his own school, the Lyceum. (pg xiii) Many of his works were lost over the years. Those that survived, and are completed works, are thought to have come from his lectures at Lyceum.
Aristotle was one of the last Greek philosopher, being the successor of Socrates and Plato. Philosophy originated in Greece sometime around the time, as early as, 6 century B.C. as thinkers began questioning and developing rational methods for exploring the obscurities of nature and mathematics. These pre-Socratic thinkers were not really considered as philosophers as they also focused heavily on mathematics and science rather than just philosophy. Aristotle was also greatly influenced by the pre-Socratic thinkers and so his work was to a certain extent guided by the facts of these thinkers as well, primarily in the sciences and metaphysics, his most significant influence was undoubtedly Plato (427–347 B.C.). Plato’s philosophy was centered
This makes Plato seem to be a fantastic source, it is full of discoveries and creativity, and it is not afraid to let know. For example in the Republic, he treats happinessas a state of perfection that is hard to comprehend because it is base don metaphysical presuppositions that seem hazy and imposible to be understood by ordinary thinkers. Then he comes up with this new theory about happiness, and how it is all inside each persons desire to fulfill his or her own desires. Trying to look for a safe place, and with safety, comes great happiness. It is said that Plato began with short dialogues, which questioned basic morals such as courage, justice, moderation and so on.
When he was in Athens studying he met a man named Plato. Plato saw Aristotle’s talent
Socrates execution Socrates was a Greek from Athens who is credited as the founder of Western Philosophy. He is a prominent and known through the accounts of classical writers. Through his presentation in Plato’s dialogues (his student), he has become renowned for his contribution to the matters of ethics. Socrates also made a notable lasting contribution to the field of epistemology .His influence and an idea remains a strong foundation for much of western philosophy that followed (Plato 51).