In the three decades leading up to the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, the abolitionist movement, through direct actions and sentiment against slavery, sowed radical reactionary responses across the southern slave states. While the actions and views of abolitionists did not reflect the widespread or majority opinion of the free states, the reciprocal effect of the abolitionist propaganda and violent actions led to greater polarization in America over the topic of slavery and its expansion. Additionally, the various actions performed by the northern based abolitionist created an aura of fear and paranoia amongst the ruling slaveholding political elite in the south who increasingly saw the actions as an attack on the southern slave
Although most people claim that the southerners were trying to break up the union, It was more of a case of the south trying to stand up to the federal government and saying that the laws that they pass within the state do matter. In 1828 tariffs were passed by Congress to benefited trade in northern states. Relaying to heavily on the export of agricultural goods, these tariffs started becoming harmful to the Southern states. In 1832, South Carolina passed a state law stating that the tariffs were invalid within the state of South Carolina. President Andrew Jackson responded with a naval flotilla and a threat of federal troops to enforce the tariffs in South Carolina.
The revolt forced the Virginia legislature to openly discuss the idea of emancipation, which is “the fact or process of being set free from legal, social, or political restrictions; liberation” according to the English dictionary. A much smaller portion of the southern population reached to the conclusion that Nat Turner’s rebellion signaled that slavery should be abolished. This led to a debate in Virginia, which unfortunately the white politicians of that time decided to be against freedom, equality, and emancipation. Instead, they opted for much harsher slave codes including rigorous restrictions and limits on the movement of black slaves, black congregations and the communication of black preachers toward other slaves. Nat Turner was a preacher so Floyd, which was the Governor at that time, and many other leaders believed that the best way to stop future revolts was to restrict black preachers who otherwise would had access and influence over a wide swath of the black populace.
Northern politicians quickly backed Wilmot’s amendment. However, southern politicians felt such an act was unconstitutional and blocked the passage of the Wilmot Proviso. Wilmot’s proviso never passed and the issue of slavery in westward territories remained a topic of heated
Jefferson wanted to abolish slavery but when freed they had to be removed from society since slaves took up most of Virginia’s population. In order to have a “disappearance” of an entirely black population Jefferson deported the future generation by shipping infants to Haiti. Jefferson believed deportation was the best solution because blacks and whites couldn’t coexist in America because of the nature of our color and intelligence. Blacks were “inferior” and were not capable of Christian virtue and salvation (Takaki 65). Many African Americans challenged Jefferson with evidence of what they are capable of but Jefferson refused to change his “opinion” (Takaki
People in the North believed that slavery was inherently evil and inhumane, but the South disagreed, believing that slaves were property and leaving all possible work on the plantations, up to them. This then led to the great Abolitionists Movement as many people started to view slavery as evil thanks to people such as Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, and Harriet Beecher Stowe. The next cause of the war was the new expansion throughout the U.S. This caused new states to have to choose between the Union and Confederacy, which only caused for hate and strive between the two. Another conflict was Bleeding Kansas.
The mutiny, “Deepened the schism between slaveholders and free-soilers” (history.com). Nat’s actions led to, “ending the organized emancipation movement in that region.”( History.com). “The state legislature of Virginia considered abolishing slavery, but in a close vote decided to retain slavery and to support a repressive policy against black people, slave and free “ ( Pbs.org). Because of the rebel people considered abolishing slavery but because so many people died, the cons of the attack outweighed the pros. There was much damage caused by the rebel.
With no final agreement, the country had no other choice but to go to war with itself. The slow decline of the, once powerful, Southern economy and the major issue of the abolishment of slaves are what led to the cause of the American Civil War. While economics and political structure played an important role in the cause of the Civil War, slavery was the main reason why altercations arose. Many historians and teachers try to hide the fact that slavery was such a huge factor in the cause of the Civil War because they looked at slavery as the “norm”. To them, the differences between the Republicans and Democratic formed great disagreement.
The Civil War began because America was not united in its viewpoints on slavery and on the power the national government had to dictate whether or not slavery would be outlawed. Abraham Lincoln became president and vowed to shut down slavery and to make sure it would not appear in the new territories that were emerging in America. Southerners were outraged because they used slavery as a way of cheap labor, but people started to question the morality of what was taking place in the South. When the war began, America was split in two because some of the Southern states joined together. The war was fought by the Union soldiers, who fought against slavery.
After being separated from his mother at a young age, Frederick Douglass fights back against slavery and human rights. In Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, the author, Frederick Douglass, uses powerful rhetoric to disprove the Pragmatic and the Scientific pro-slavery arguments of Pre-Civil War America. The Pragmatic Argument is about how many people believe that if all black slaves were to be freed, then this would result in convulsions which would then lead to extermination of the one or other race. Many people also believed that black slavery was necessary for American history. Douglass disproves this argument in many ways.
When the northern states started getting rid of slavery the other half was expected to comply, but southerners were not going to sit back and watch their whole workforce for their main economy be taken away. With courage they revolted and disbanded from the union to stand up for their rights just as English settlers had done to create the free nation of
The Civil War was caused by the north imposing unfair tariffs on the south, the constant argument over slavery and the slave trade, and states’ rights. “The South felt overcharged and cheated” (Document, essay). The south received mostly all manufactured goods straight from the north and Europe and since the south produces mostly cotton, they must acquire all manufactured goods from out of state. Congress passed the Tariff of 1828 and 1832 which made South Carolina and the south very mad. South Carolina and the south believed they were getting cheated, so South Carolina threatened to secede unless the tariff was lowered.
Moreover, the South thought that they suffered economically from the Union. They complained that the various charges that “added some 20 percent to the cost of cotton and other commodities went into the pockets of northern merchants…” It resembled the colonists’ complaint on the Navigation Acts, which gave British merchants monopoly on trades. Also economically, the South suffered because of the various bans on slavery. Davis said, “plantation slavery rapidly wear out soil, the South needed fresh land for an expanding population.” The South felt that they had lost much fortune because of the federal government. Similarly, the Proclamation of 1763 also prevented the Americans from acquiring new land.
Slavery was an extremely prominent and debated issue in the late 1800’s that ended up dividing the United States in half. There were the Northerners who opposed the institution of slavery and the Southerners who gave it their support. The controversy over the use of slavery had been an issue between the North and South for a long time but it became even more evident during the election of 1860. Abraham Lincoln ran in the Republican Party a group who had devoted itself to keeping slavery out of the new territories as the country expanded westward. The south feared abolitionists would use violence in order to deprive the south of slave property.