Andy Miller Professor Farber HIST 129: 18157 November 30th The New Jim Crow Era Following the period of Reconstruction, state and local governments passed laws in the southern United States which enforced racial segregation of Americans. These laws, known as Jim Crow Laws, mandated segregation in all public facilities within the former Confederate States which created a “separate but equal" status for black citizens. The old Jim Crow Laws continued to be enforced until 1964 when the Civil Rights Act outlawed all discrimination based on race. However, Michele Alexander, author of The New Jim Crow, argues that through the mass imprisonment of African American in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries have created a new era and system
The task of this assignment was first of all to explain the relationship between the colored and the white races in the Southern States of America from 1900 to the 1960’s. To investigate this, I used different kinds of literature and a few sources of history. Through these materials it was clear that this relationship between the colored and the white races was unequal and the colored race was discriminated by the whites. The Jim Crow-laws created a systematic racial segregation in the Southern States and it required the Civil Rights Movement from around 1955 to 1968 to do something about this. Martin Luther King was among others a leader of the non-violence movement which fought for civil rights for the colored race through sit-ins, boycotts
Tera W. Hunter is a scholar of U. S. history, with specializations in African-Americans, gender, labor, and the South. She is particularly interested in the history of slavery and freedom. She is currently writing a book on African-American marriages in the nineteenth century. Her first book received several prizes including the H. L. Mitchell Award from the Southern Historical Association, the Letitia Brown Memorial Book Prize from the Association of Black Women’s Historians, and the Book of the Year Award from the International Labor History Association. She was a Mary I. Bunting Institute Fellow, at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University, 2005-2006.
Edna Greene Medford earned her degrees at Hampton University, University of Illinois, and University of Maryland where Medford earned her Ph.D. in United States History. Medford specialized topics are on the Civil War, the Reconstruction, 19th century African-American history to 1877, and the Jacksonian Era. Dr. Medford was awarded the Order of Lincoln, the State highest honor of Illinois as a Bicentennial laureate. In Dr. Medford’s book, Concise Lincoln Library: Lincoln and Emancipation, she describes the differences of political ideology over the topic of slavery which was the subject in every states, cities, and town during most of the 1800’s. Also, Dr. Medford explains the reasoning behind Abraham Lincoln peculiar perspective over African-Americans
Black Boy Book Review Richard Wright begins his biography in 1914 with a story of his never-ending curiosity and need to break the rules. Although this biography only extends through the early years of his life, Wright manages to display the harsh world that a black member of society faced in the South during the time of the Jim Crow laws. Wright explains the unwritten customs, rules and expectations of blacks and whites in the south, and the consequences faced when these rules are not followed strictly.
Like a scar that healed over to protect from pain, so it was with black “history” in the US from Reconstruction Years until the Civil Rights Era, where African-American “history” and pain slowly encapsulated a wound that was never dealt with. Zadie Smith wittily stated in her modern classic, White Teeth, “Every moment happens twice: inside and outside, and they are two different histories” (Smith 299). This is true for the African-American who for centuries had his/her history stifled by white society that failed to give nondiscriminatory accounts because of racism, misconstructions, or indifference. Furthermore, African-Americans, having the trauma inside their consciousness (forever scared), give inaccurate portrayals of their own narrative as well as have insignificant historical discourses. Whether it be from fear of racism, literary system misplacement, depravity, suppression, or feeling defeated, the pain is not articulated.
The Civil Rights Movement was an ongoing fight for racial fairness that took place for over a hundred years after the Civil War. Martin Luther King, Jr., Booker T. Washington, and Rosa Parks led the battles that eventually made changes in the law. When most people talk about the Civil Rights Movement they are talking about the rallies in the 1950s and 1960s that led to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1870, Americans likely would not have anticipated the need for the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.
Desiree’s Baby is a short story about Southern racism and the widespread abhorrence of miscegenation (the interbreeding of people considered to be of different racial types). The main theme of racism is integral to “Désirée’s Baby”, for it shows an illustration of Chopin’s time where African Americans were inferior to the whites. I researched the historical background of this time period and found out that this short story was published in 1892, twenty seven years after slavery was abolished, but placed in the era of slavery. Set in Louisiana, during the early 1900s on a white owned plantation.
Rosa Parks The Civil Right Movement was the African-American way of fighting for equality to the whites and it was supposed to be a nonviolent way to protest. Khan academy stated that “After the Civil War, during the period known as Reconstruction, the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments established a legal foundation for the political equality of African Americans. Despite the abolition of slavery and legal gains for African Americans, racial segregation known as Jim Crow arose in the South”. Jim Crow law meant that African American could not be at the same place as the white people.