On the playground, Cecil says, "Scout Finch’s daddy defended niggers.” In chapter 11, Jem and Scout are walking past Mrs. Dubose 's home when she starts making very derogatory and racist comments about Atticus. Mrs. Dubose shows her racist personality in the story by telling Jem, “Your father’s no better than the niggers and trash he works for!” Then once again in chapter 15, a lynch mob arrives at the Maycomb jail the night before the trial and tries to lynch Tom Robinson. By doing this, they show their racist ideology.
Three murder case studies will be presented and compare here: Marian Bates, Martha Moxley, and Elizabeth Short. Marian Bates was a 64 year old Nottingham Jeweler who was murdered in front of her husband, Victor Bates, and children. Peter Williams, a 19 year old drug addict was released early from prison and was supposedly under “intense supervision”. Williams removed his tag and violated his curfew. He and an unidentified gunman who is still at large, raided a jewelry store on September 30th 2003.
He was in critical condition after being beaten and died a few days later in a hospital. Jackson’s death inspired numerous civil rights leaders to hold the Selma to Montgomery March on March 7, 1965. Not to mention his death also inspired the voting rights march, which soon was known as “Bloody Sunday” because of the violence that took place at the march. Consequently, this made more Americans favor civil rights. As well as making it possible to pass the 1965’s Voting Rights Act.
Racial and ethnicity discrimination in the justice system have been around since the beginning of this country against “Negroid” . Writing this research paper brings me back to the first book I ever read; “The Emmett Till Story;” which should be a reminder how awful our justice system can be. The problem we are having today in America is that Emmett Till’s story is still going on in 2017. The story goes like this per emmetttillmurder.com “While visiting family in Money, Mississippi, 14-year-old Emmett Till, an African American from Chicago, is brutally murdered for flirting with a white woman four days earlier.” Now this is we their system have fail, and continued to nose-dive the Negroid around in America.
In 1915, a Jewish businessman Leo Frank was falsely accused of killing a worker, Mary Phlegem, in the pencil factory he managed. When the Georgia governor reduced Frank’s death sentence to life imprisonment due to lack of evidence, a mob dragged him and lynched him. He was given a posthumous pardon decades later when the evidence pointed to a janitor at the factory. Leo Frank tragedy caused “a ripple effect of fear among Jewish immigrants and Jewish Americans” (Anti-semitism in America). The lynching of Leo Frank was the beginning of two long decades of prejudicsm and hatred towards Jewish Americans in interwar America.
The MLK unit showed me a lot about my interests and non interests. Although, the Emmett Till situation is what grabbed my attention. It was typical during the 1950 's for blacks to be killed, but what stood out the most is when his mother requested to have an open casket at his funeral. She wanted everyone to see what they had done to her 14-year old boy. Emmett 's case became representative of the disparity of justice for blacks in the South.
"Bloody Sunday,” occurred when a guy name John Lewis and a lady named Hosea Williams attempted to lead more than 500 civil rights marchers east out of Selma on U.S. Route 80. They made it only to the Edmund Pettus Bridge six blocks away from where they started, where they met state and local policemen. The police men attacked the blacks with Billy clubs and tear gas. Bloody Sunday took place due to the fact that one protester by the name of Jimmy Lee Jackson was shot down by an Alabama state trooper on February 26, 1965. Bloody Sunday displayed a huge impact in the civil rights movement.
On July 6, 2016, in Falcon Heights, Minnesota, shots fired from Officer Jeronimo Yanez, killing an African American, Philando Castile. Castile, with his girlfriend, Diamond Reynolds, and her four year old daughter in the car, was pulled over for a broken brake light. Within seventy-four seconds Castile was dead. 74 Seconds, a podcast, from producers John Collins and Riham Feshir, on Minnesota Public Radio, consists of twenty-three episodes. The podcast walks viewers through the entire story of the traffic stop incident, from when it happened to the end of the trial.
In the year of 1955, Emmett Till had been brutally murdered by the suspected Roy Bryant and J. W. Milam. On August 20, Till had gone to stay for two-weeks with his relatives in the town of Money, Mississippi. Four days after arriving to Money, Emmett and some of his relatives drove to the local grocery and meat market. In the grocery store, Emmett Till had pursued flirting with the cashier, Carolyn Bryant, and even grabbed her by the waist. Once outside the store, Till had even whistled at the cashier, something not acceptable for African-Americans to do towards whites at this time.
“Democracy Abroad, Lynching at Home : Racial Violence in Florida” by Tameka Bradley Hobbs discusses the great lengths of horror that took place in the state of Florida. From the beginning Hobbs starts with the emotional story of Bernice Golden who discovered the body of her son hung in her mother's yard and was not convinced that her son had committed suicide as the law enforcement had suggested. This scene brought back memories of situations in the past in which a black man was hung by his white counterpart. These acts of lynching were common throughout the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries with almost 5,000 African Americans losing their lives in these acts of racial terrorism. Hobbs states that while some methods of upholding the idea of white supremacy were on a downward trend the legal aspects or “legal lynchings” were increasing.
Mike Brown is the modern day Emmitt till, the six little girls burned in the church, and Trayvon Martin combined into one. The events that happened soon after arguably changed the lives of Ferguson citizens forever. Ferguson citizens was justified in their response due to the death of Mike Brown, police brutality, and the results of the indictment. The main cause of the riots that took place in Ferguson is the fact that Mike Brown was brutally gunned down by a white police office while he was unarmed and hands up.
The article titled, “Govt. Powerless To Interfere Says Attorney General”, showed the unwillingness of the federal government to outlaw lynchings. Senator Robert F. Wagner had sent Attorney General Homer Cummings, a telegram, to look into the events of two lynchings in Mississippi and Georgia. According to one report, a mob shot and killed an African-American blacksmith named Tom Green for killing his white boss due to a wage dispute.
Jesse Washington, a teenage African American farmland, was lynched in Waco, Texas, 0n May 15, 1916, in what became a well-known example of racially motivated lynching. RecWashington was accused of raping and murdering Lucy fryer, the wife or his white employer in rural Robinson, Texas. There were no eyewitnesses to the crime, but during his interrogation by the mc Lennon county sheriff he signed a confession and described the location of the murder weapon. Washington was tried for murder in Waco, in a courtroom filled with furious locals. He entered a guilty plea and was quickly sentence to death.
E.D. Nixon helped the Montgomery Bus Boycott in many ways. He once said “The Montgomery boycott was a big thing in a whole lot of people’s lives.” And he was right; for if it wasn’t for the Montgomery bus boycott, African Americans wouldn’t be able to enjoy the freedoms they have today. Edgar Daniel Nixon, otherwise known as E.D. Nixon , was born on July 12, 1899 in Lowndes County, Alabama.