There is a debate whether there is such a thing as a “addictive personality. Earlier psychoanalysts confirmed that there was such a thing as an "addictive personality". New information allows us to refine our understanding of addiction (Johnson, 2003) . By definition, addiction is a behavior over which the person has impaired control, and which is associated with harmful consequences (Meyer, Rahman, Shepherd, 2007) One type of addiction is a character type; a second is a biological disorder. An addictive character is repetitive, stereotyped response to compulsive behaviors.
It has incited ongoing debates. Among those who consider addiction a choice is Gene Heyman, author of Addiction: A Disorder of Choice. Heyman does not deny that there is a genetic component to addiction, but downplays the importance of genetics and behavior (Kurti and Dallery 4), “Heyman notes that one common error made by both laypeople and scientists is to assume that genetic involvement in a behavior implies that the behavior is involuntary” (4). Heyman defends addiction as a choice by noting the history of drug abuse, societal responses to the abuse, personal case histories of abuse, the epidemiology of addiction, “rational” and “irrational” choices, brain-behavior relationships, and approaches to treatment of drug addiction. Heyman also argues that rational choices can lead to long-term outcomes, such as addiction, and the understanding of these processes can help prevent and treat drug
In the context of addiction, one would be considered under these terms when over using drugs and alcohol, not just occasionally using them or being prescribed something. Addiction is a self inflicted disease which occurs when one initially decides to make the decision to immediate them. As a result of the usually voluntary act, the repetition of abusing the substance results in brain challenges. This is the basis of why these addictions are called diseases. The brain accumulates the need for the substance, eventually becoming not only a mental need but sometimes a physical need.
In contrast, the BIS is associated with the neurotransmitter Serotonin and brain structures that control memory. Serotonin is regarded by some researchers as a chemical that is responsible for maintaining mood balance, and that a deficit of serotonin leads to depression. The BIS is sensitive to threats of punishment and can be likened to a brake that stops a person from going too far too fast. “The BIS produces anxiety and inhibits ongoing behavior in the presence of novel stimuli, innate fear stimuli, and signals of non-reward or punishment” (O’Brien, Frick 1). The BIS is what we can rely on to tell us when we have had enough for our own
He did not overcome the criticism of the massive public and the side effects of substance abuse and eventually committed suicide. He was a talented actor, a father with a wife and a child. What led him to unhappiness? I was curious as to why someone was on drugs until they could endanger their family, friends, work, health, and everything. Drugs are said to cause significant changes in neurons and synaptic functions, making the brain's plasticity false.
But, the fact of the matter is that an emotionally sensitive topic such as addiction which has such a hold on to American citizens would greatly benefit from an appeal to these sensitivities. Of course, any article would benefit from facts such as, “About 40 percent of people using opioids aren’t interested in treatment,” or logic like, “Somebody who says they’re ready for treatment doesn’t mean they’re ready to stop using.” But, when someone fails to overcome addiction, they face mortality. An ultimatum between life and death is an empathetic topic and by appealing to emotions that become aroused by the topic of death, one can strengthen their argument. Undoubtedly, facts and common sense are important. Yet, feelings are almost impossible to control and will persuade readers to continue their or their loved-ones battle against addiction.
Substances such as cocaine, heroin, Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (cannabis), and methamphetamine are known to cause severe addiction. The effects of drugs on a human health and psychology may come in many forms. Cocaine and methamphetamine can cause nerve cells to overproduce natural neurotransmitter or prevent the natural cycling of the brain hormones, typically dopamine. As such, this may create an unusual behaviour in the brain reward system which may cause the ability of the user to halt the drug used is compromised. The user is said to be addicted and the ability to make voluntary choices is being compromised resulting in taking drugs as a psychological and physical need.
In the book’s prologue he writes about seeing a cell full of addicts, every one of them too sick from withdrawal to even complain. He says about the situation “They knew that basically no one can help anyone else”. In Naked Lunch Burroughs compares addicts to ghosts. He writes that addicts are simple ghostly shells of themselves only looking for their next shot of heroin. “- -the tentative ectoplasmic flesh of junk kick - - flesh that fades at the first silent touch of junk” Burroughs also refers to addiction as being similar to being in a prison camp, suffering from malnutrition because an addict does not feel a need for food.
There is a multitude of reasons as to why people use drugs. Current theories on drug use include using drugs to rebel against authority, as a means to escape personal issues or in response to conflict occurring in the world around them. There isn’t a sole valid explanation for drug use, but all these reasons have overlapping themes: context and environment, which relates back to a new theory that aims to change the ways in which we analyze drug use. Drug, set and setting is a theory coined by Norman Zinberg which is necessary to validate drug use in all its variations because it considers a multitude of factors, including context and environment when attempting to understand drug use in society. Before we can apply Zinberg’s theory to different
But the problem does not stop there. Of the estimated 20.8 million people aged 12 or older influenced by drugs. “Most had some form of a substance abuse disorder in the past year, including 7.7 million people with an illicit drug use disorder and 15.7 million with an alcohol use disorder.”(How Many People) But how can we defeat such a massive problem? The drug epidemic is something that affects us all, everyone knows someone who is at the mercy of drugs. People who are addicted to drugs are incapable of change because it is a mental illness.