One major cause of added tension is the practice of racial profiling by law enforcement which increased significantly in the 80’s, when “the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) developed profiling of drug couriers to intercept and reduce interstate drug trafficking” (Sirin 4). With few policy changes since the war on drugs began, the results are, in 2000 the U.S. surpassed Russia as the leader of having the most individuals incarcerated. Michigan, a relatively small state, in regard to population, has more individuals incarcerated than the country of France, and the numbers get worse in the larger states like California. From 1980 to 2000 the “number of individuals incarcerated increased 300%, with the majority being African Americans” (Sirin 7). The last few years have seen “some
Communities of color were targeted for crimes and given larger prison sentences than their white counterparts. In the Rockefeller Drug Reform of 2009, the racial disparities significantly decreased in the early periods following the reform (Parsons, Wei, Henrichson, Drucker, & Trone, 2015). Black and Hispanic individuals, in 2008 were three-times more likely than whites to receive a prison sentence; by 2010, black and Hispanic individuals were only twice as likely to be charged than whites. Although this is still an issue that needs to be addressed, it is a significant accomplishment compared to previous years. There is still said to be harmful biases in the criminal justice system (Parsons, Wei, Henrichson, Drucker, & Trone,
Chapter two introduces the policy problems related to the War on Drugs, as well as other policies that banned or limited other use of alcohol and drugs. Authors start with the history of the regulations of mood altering substances that began in colonial times, and then it escalated with “The Father of Modern Drug Enforcement”, Dr. Hamilton Wright. President Roosevelt assigned him to be the first Opium Drug Commissioner of the United States. Dr. Wright saw drugs as a big problem, according to the text the drug prohibitions started with his opinions on limiting drug use. In 1906 the Pure Food and Drug Act was signed and required the labeling of the ingredients of the products.
Each year, the overall prison population surpassed the 1 million mark (Lurigio & Loose, 2008). As a result of the war on drugs, the total number of individuals incarcerated went from 581,000 in 1980 to 1,584,000 by 1997. Strict drug laws have caused incarceration rates to escalate at an alarming pace over the last 40 years. According to the Bureau of Justice Statics, in 1996 the African American incarceration rate was 1,574 per 100,000, seven times higher than the rate for Whites. Researchers have discovered that the war on drugs has led to the overcrowding of African Americans in the prison system (Lurigio & Loose, 2008).
In fact, according to a chart done by Prospect.org, the majority (52%) of inmates in federal prison are there because of drug related victims. Also, 53% of the inmates in state prison are there because of violent crime. This leads me to believe that what really needs to be addressed is violence and drugs. Although violence is hard to control, there is something being done about the drug epidemic that is increasingly growing. The United States’ drug epidemic is much more intense compared to other countries, including developed and non-developed countries.
At the turn of the 21st century the majority that entered the prison system were African Americans and Latinos. (Michelle Alexander, 2010) The reason behind mass incarceration was due to the crack down on the deteriorating communities where the majority of minorities lived. Authors Scott Ehlers, Vincent Schiraldi and Jason Ziedenberg of Still Striking Out: Ten Years of California’s Three Strikes (2004) report that African Americans in prison because of the three strike law is higher per every 100,000 African American than Whites and Latinos in California. (U.S. Census Bureau
2. Latino people often have high arrest rates.This is an issue because Latinos account for an excessive amount of all felony and misdemeanor arrests. To explain, Latinos are much more likely than White Americans to get arrested.Latinos account for almost half (46 percent) of all documented gang members in the United States.The issue here is that despite the high numbers of documented Latino gang members, only 3 percent of young Latinos aged sixteen to twenty-five report that they are now or have ever been in a gang.
Quick Write Essay Mass incarceration is a horrible failure. America has the highest incarceration rate in the world. Even though America is home to about one-twentieth of the population , America has half of the world as prisoners. Incarceration is still high and not lowering no time soon. “ We are not moving nearly fast enough to reduce incarceration… Over 2 million Americans live caged… a 550 percent increase in the last 40 years.
Black defendants were 1.1 times more likely to receive the death penalty than the white defendants. 78 percent of the death penalty defendants are black, 11 percent were white, as well as Latino. (Constitutional Rights Foundation) African Americans are counted for more than a third of the arrest for violent
For some, freedom is not given. For some, freedom is how things are in which a common situation in everyday life. Realize it or not, human trafficking is still happening today. For every 30 seconds, another person becomes a victim of the trafficking industry. Today, according to ILO research, not only there are more than 21 million people being trafficked worldwide but also an illegal annual profits that may exceeds USD $150 billion, in such a way making trafficking industry as the second largest black market industry in the world.
Since 1930, 90 percent of individuals executed for rape have been African Americans. This issue has faced multiple controversies due to the belief of “complete confidence” of the criminal justice system (Harmon, 2004). Wrongful convictions have historically occurred due to the races of the defendant versus the race of the victim. This is an in issue because these cases impair the integrity and reliability of the court system (Harmon, 2004). Wrong convictions are not as uncommon as believed by the public.
Illegal aliens account for nearly 37% of federal prison sentences in 2014. “They represented 16.8 percent of drug trafficking cases, 20.0 percent of kidnapping/hostage taking, 74.1 percent of drug possession, 12.3 percent of money laundering, and 12.0 percent of murder convictions” (May) Illegal immigrants cause our nations crime rates to go up because they would also send the population
The scientifically unjustifiable 100:1 ratio meant that people faced longer sentences for offenses involving crack cocaine than for offenses involving the same amount of powder cocaine – two forms of the same drug. Most disturbingly, because the majority of people arrested for crack offenses are African American, the 100:1 ratio resulted in vast racial disparities in the average length of sentences for comparable offenses. On average, under the 100:1 regime, African Americans served virtually as much time in prison for non-violent drug offenses as whites did for violent
With everything that affected the United States during prohibition, it is because of the increase in crime, weak enforcement, lack of respect for the law, and economic suffrage that the 18th amendment was repealed. To begin, crime was at a high during this event in history. For example, between 1919 and 1933 the homicide rate was 7-10 americans per 100,000 (document B). The homicide rates were increasing during prohibition. In the time of WWII homicide rates dropped but were still at 6 americans per 100,000 (document B).