Aircraft Design Elements

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Abstract - The structure of an aircraft is an important section where it actually depends on the best requirement of the client or customer and its flying environment wherein it would fly for a particular time. It has to go several tests at regular interval of flying hours under correct examination. The basic details regarding the components of an aircraft and the basic design concepts are highlighted here in this paper. The main standard of design and its philosophy is the level of safety which has to be considered at the time of the construction with respect to the flying condition and its respective atmosphere. There are large amount of variations taken place in the design of aircraft when compared to historic views and its all explained…show more content…
Since the wing struts are usually attached approximately halfway out on the wing, this type of wing structure is called semi-cantilever. A few high-wing and most low-wing airplanes have a full cantilever wing designed to carry the loads without external struts. The principal structural parts of the wing are spars, ribs, and stringers. Fig 4: Wing components. These are reinforced by trusses, I-beams, tubing, or other devices, including the skin. The wing ribs determine the shape and thickness of the wing (airfoil). In most modern airplanes, the fuel tanks either are an integral part of the wing´s structure, or consist of flexible containers mounted inside of the wing. Attached to the rear, or trailing, edges of the wings are two types of control surfaces referred to as ailerons and flaps. Ailerons extend from about the midpoint of each wing outward toward the tip and move in opposite directions to create aerodynamic forces that cause the airplane to roll. Flaps extend outward from the fuselage to near the midpoint of each wing. The flaps are normally flush with the wing´s surface during cruising flight. When extended, the flaps move simultaneously downward to increase the lifting force of the wing for takeoffs and landings.
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2.1 Introduction: Aircraft tires, tubeless or tube type, provide a cushion of air that helps absorb the shocks and roughness of landings and takeoffs: they support the weight of the aircraft while on the ground and provide the necessary traction for braking and stopping aircraft on landing. Thus, aircraft tires must be carefully maintained to meet the rigorous demands of their basic job to accept a variety of static and dynamic stresses dependably--in a wide range of operating conditions.

2.2 Brief description:
Aircraft Tire Construction:
Dissect an aircraft tire and you'll find that it's one of the strongest and toughest pneumatic tires made. It must withstand high speeds and very heavy static and dynamic loads. For example, the main gear tires of a four-engine jet transport are required to withstand landing speeds up to 250 mph, as well as static and dynamic loads as high as 22 and 33 tons respectively.
Tread: It is made of rubber compound for toughness and durability, the tread is patterned in accordance with aircraft operational requirements. The circumferential ribbed pattern is widely used today because it provides good traction under widely varying runway
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