The Second Wave was a very powerful, social, and political movement that bettered the lives of women. It extended from the outlook of the anti-war and civil rights movements and the increasing self-consciousness of many of the minority groups around the world. Similar to the anti-slavery movement that happened in the nineteenth century, the modern movement encouraged activism of all sorts. This lead to the rise of feminism in the mid to late 60s, especially community-based methods of women’s liberation, was based partly on young women recognizing sexism within much of the movements, largely made up of male-dominated groups like Students for a Democratic Society, among others. The voice of the second wave was increasingly sweeping the nation.
They had segregated schooling, transport and toilets under the Jim Crow laws. This is justified by, ‘the popularity of protest music in the 1960s was also fuelled by the massive social change that evolved from the Civil Rights Movement, the rise of feminism,’ (4) showing that many artists were also fighting for an ideological change in the way American citizens were treated by their country, namely African Americans and women, rather than only fighting against what they believed was an unjust war. Artists like James Brown (5) fought for black empowerment in American society. Brown’s song, ‘Say it Loud: I’m Black and I’m Proud’ (5) is described as being ‘an important document in the development of the Civil Rights Movement’ (5) due to its infectious rhythm and strong message about black pride and self-empowerment. Another example of a black artist is Aretha Franklin, who wrote songs about women rising up and demanding ‘respect’ (5) in the country in which she lived, both as an African American and a woman, as shown by her song title.
The author goes to explain aspects intersectionality as this concept consists of many working forms of oppression as Collins uses intersectionality to assess the views and approaches to sexuality within the United States. The significance of intersectionality regarding this specific assessment of Black women’s sexuality reveals the reality of sexuality that is composed of “heterosexism, class, race, nation, and gender as systems of oppression converge” as these forms of oppression aren’t isolated from one another, but correlates in a way to form the matrix of domination. As intersectionality and the matrix of domination function within American society, “[for] Black women, ceding control over self-definitions of Black women’s sexualities upholds multiple oppressions. This is because all systems of oppression rely on harnessing the power of the erotic” as a way of establishing domination (Collins, 128.) Through further analysis in Formation, the matrix of domination directly confronts the dominant group that is the white population by challenging beauty standards, representation, stereotypes of African Americans, and gender roles throughout the entirety of the song.
Most abortion arguments discussed today revolve around the premise that a fetus is a human being at conception. In Judith Thomson’s essay, “A Defense to Abortion”, she argues on the topic of abortions. She defends the mother’s right to choose what happens to her body on the assumption that a baby becomes a human at conception. In the argument, she gives the famous Violinist analogy. I will argue in this essay that her argumentative analogy is not sound because of the difference in social importance.
One may ask how has the aspects of black culture affected the value of black women? Well, before answering this question one must be mindful of the aspect education and the impact it has on the value of black women. Also, one must think about how education contributed to black women life historically. Typically, from the time they were brought here as slaves and until modern day. Black women were brought here with no freedom or power and used education as a weapon to make strides for equality.
The abortion rate reached its first peak in the 1800’s when the United States had no restriction or regulation on the procedure. The process has changed extensively in the last two-hundred years, mainly due to the developments of science and medicine. Induced abortion is the process of forcefully removing the fetus from the womb of the mother. Induced abortions are made of two different processes: therapeutic or elective.
The Birth of Birth Control “A free race cannot be born of slave mothers” - Margaret Sanger (Brainy Quote). Margaret Sanger was a nurse, a feminist and an early women’s rights activist. She devoted her time towards the legalization of birth control and educating women about family planning options. Although she received opposition, Margaret Sanger revolutionized women’s battle for reproductive rights in America. Margaret Sanger went through many obstacles but still managed to spread her message and educate women about family planning.
The latest study on abortion in the British Journal of Psychiatry has found that abortion itself increases the risk of mental health problems for women by 81%, the research also found that nearly 10% of the incidence of all women’s mental health problems is directly attributable to abortion, the study takes into account pre-existing mental health problem prior to having an abortion. Many journalists in the US and UK have discovered that councilors at abortion clinics conceal mental and physical health risks as well as the fact that the procedure will violently end a child’s life, in order to sell
The word abortion by definition means the ending of pregnancy by removing a fetus or embryo before it can survive outside the uterus. IV. Abortion, without a doubt, is an extremely controversial issue nowadays because although some people including me are totally against it, others believe that a woman should have the right to choose. V. Each year, millions of unborn baby are killed worldwide. Since abortion was legalized 40 years ago in United States, over 40 million babies have been killed and more than 1.2 million are killed each year.
We cannot understand the suffragette movements without seeing its context and we surely cannot understand the second wave feminism if we don’t know about the expectations and limitations women had to face all over the world. The liberation movement starting in the 1960s and lasting until the backlash in the early nineties, focused on rethinking the position of women in society, including the role of the mother and reproductive rights. – But it also brought forward ideas about a solidarity between women that would take into consideration the differences between them: Black women and Women of Colour would take a stand and try to make space in the mostly White feminist movements – that is to say movements that were mostly perceived White, as Gloria Steinem recently declared there were indeed a lot of Black women involved but they rarely attained as much visibility as White middle class women. It was mainly Black women in the 1980s advocating for a more inclusive view on feminism. bell hooks’ “Ain’t I a women”, Angela Davis’ “Women Race and Class” or again Audre Lorde’s “Age, Race, Class and Sex” all aim to shift the focus from a singular and homogenous examination of women’s lives to one that includes the variety and complexity of all women.
Sanger wanted women everywhere to refrain from the negativity that stemmed from abortions and unwanted pregnancies. As time passed woman everywhere won a huge victory in 1973 case of Roe v. Wade. The Supreme Court adjudicated that the states had no jurisdiction to outlaw abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy (PBS.ORG). This new law brought a new wave of opposition to abortion and continues to cause differences of opinion among supporters of women’s rights and supporters of life. According to “What has been the Impact of Roe v. Wade”, four decades after the law was passed the issue of abortion remains contentious.