Being able to trust people is extremely important to our well-being and by committing to an act-utilitarian case by case evaluation method, people become less reliable and trustworthy. Rule-utilitarianism avoids this issue as they are are committed to rules which generate positive expectation effects which tells us how people are likely to behave. While rule-utilitarians do not deny that there are people who are not trustworty, it is clear that their moral code condemns violations of trust as wrongful rather than the act-utilitarian approach which supports the moral view that has the effect of undermining trust. We should, 'therefore accept rules against…breaking promises and violating people's rights because following them as a regular practice promotes general welfare' (Rachels,
Socialization is the condition in which people adopt the customs and standards of the social orders they live in. The method is beyond a process in where the established society is affected. When individuals neglect the acceptance of the theory of society as their own, there are more chances of disorder for both the people and the society entirely. The capability to make mayhem grows in agreement with the volume of control a person may possess within the outmoded influence of power. If the freedom from conservative thinking occurs in someone with excessive amounts of ethical order, they would possibly have the control to root the failures within the structure.
Different effects may have different intensities for different individuals. Probability allows us to weigh the likelihood of an effect happening, should we act in a certain way. Rule Utilitarianism is similar to Act Utilitarianism in that it uses the principle of utility, however, Rule Utilitarianism decides what one’s moral principles ought to be, rather than telling one how to act. Many individuals believe Act Utilitarianism is too difficult, but it is probable to reject Act Utilitarianism, while maintaining Rule Utilitarianism. Rule Utilitarianism is made up of two foundational principles: Principles of Rules and of Acts.
Certain behaviour is considered more correct to the degree that other people are doing it. Social proof is a shortcut because it involves following social cues from others rather than processing and analyzing the situation and trying to decide on a course of action. Social proof is caused by and works better under the condition of uncertainty. Furthermore, similarity is another key element because we tend to follow the behaviour of those similar to us. Social proof can be used ethically if it is used to set positive examples or to influence others to behave ethically.
Since a state will be granted the authority to enforce punishments for those who breach the social contract then people will begin adjusting their lifestyles to in accordance with the social contract unlike in the State of Nature wereby there was no officially authority to rule and enforce order so that people can co-operate despite their differences. This is a good way for people to live amongst each other harmoniously
In this essay I will be discussing the concept of toleration and its importance for pluralist societies. The concept of toleration is difficult to understand because when you tolerate someone or something you do not necessarily agree with it, you just do not act out in violence because of it. Tolerance shows that individuals acknowledge that other individuals have the right to believe in what they want to even though it may not be what others also believe in. This acknowledgment is important in a pluralist society because in order for a pluralist society to exist and function well, the society must practice the act of tolerance. In a pluralistic society, there are a diverse group of religious cultures and traditions.
Thomas Hobbes believed that people are born into who they will become, society is not the determining factor. He believed that people were naturally bad. John Locke believed that a person is built and molded by the view that moral and political obligations are dependent upon the society in which they live in during the earlier years of their lives. He believed that people have the ability to be good people, especially if they are raised in a positive society. Their views on how people behave and how society affects the behaviour of others are still prevalent today.
DO STEREOTYPES EVER CHANGE? Many theorists have suggested that stereotyping will be stable as long as the nature of relationship that exists between our group and the stereotyped group is stable (Eagly 1987, Oakes et al., 1994; Tajfel,1981). That is because we construct stereotypes that reflect how we see members of different groups actually behaving, stereotype change should only occur when the relations between the groups change. In addition we generally hold stereotypes that are favorable to our own group in comparison to another group. Unless social conditions shift so that we no longer see in-group favoritism as acceptable, unfavorable stereotypes of groups we are not members of, can be expected to persist.
The immediate community around people is the important reason that people act in the certain ways. Usually, what people being like at society is not what they are actually being like as themselves. From their immediate communities, people gain the impressions society gives to them. Some people may misunderstand themselves through being at the society; some people may become selfish by seeing other people act selfishly. Overall, people are changing when context is changing.
A society is a group of people that have similar beliefs and expectations of one another. When members violate rules of the group, they may be excluded or ostracized by other members. Sameness is appreciated in a society. Unfortunately differences can have very serious consequences for those who choose to break social norms or don’t “fit” into the society. These reactions by a society helps to bind members together making the society strong.