In light of the sorry history of discrimination and its devastating impact on the lives of Negroes, bringing the Negro into the mainstream of American life should be a state interest of the highest order. To fail to do so is to ensure that America will forever remain a divided society" (“The man who turned racism into history THE LAW’If white supremacy has subsided in the United States, it’s largely due to Thurgood Marshall of the Supreme Court.”, par 10). African Americans were mistreated, viewed as lower class, and were not equal in the eyes of the people or the law. Although the law changed, people were not as quick to the change, so African American were continually mistreated until others stood up for them and put their feet down just like Thurgood Marshall did in order to let African Americans gain equality. Marshall was a strong believer in the law and that things can and would change for the better like how he suggested "The Negro who was once enslaved by law
The effects resulted in the Environmental Movement in Canada to target mining processes that could be harmful of the environment. Mining in Canada created an environmental challenge that Canada had to posses because of the harmful side effects produced in the process. This resulted in Canada rethinking the mining process in order to conserve the natural
Glenn Ellis acknowledges the ulterior motives of government officials addressed by J. Bernstein and Martelle but contributes those ulterior motives as factors of environmental racism. In an article by Glenn Ellis entitled “Environmental Racism Persists Beyond Flint Water Crisis” Ellis maintains that the Flint Water Crisis is a paradigm of environmental racism. He defines environmental racism as the disproportionate impact of environmental hazards on people of color, which is supported by the final report of the Flint Water Task Force, a task force appointed to investigate the Flint Water Crisis, who in its final report claimed that the majority-black city of Flint “did not enjoy the same degree of protection from environmental and health hazards as that provided to other communities.” (U.S. Cong. Michigan Government). Furthermore, Ellis he states that “environmental racism is caused by several factors such as intentional neglect… and a lack of institutional power and low land values of people of color.” The individuals most affected by the Flint Water Crisis were poor African Americans who had “a lack of institutional power” due to the law that Martelle claims that “undermined democracy” or took away decision-making power from elected officials/representatives once an emergency manager was appointed.
Donald Worster is an environmental historian and his book Dust Bowl: The Southern Plains in the 1930s helped to define the environmental history movement as it was the first environmental history book published. He breaks the stereotype of how the Dust Bowl was viewed by writing it from an environmental standpoint instead of writing a social history by focusing solely on the people and their experiences. How it helped to define the environmental history movement is that it opened up this avenue for others to write about environmental issues. He is also an anti-capitalist and this book combines his interest in the environment with the effect that capitalism has on the environment. Worster’s book focuses on the relationship between the environment
Within the broader American environmental movement that began in the late 19th century, two main groups emerged, conservationists and preservationists, which had fundamentally different views on how the United States ought to manage the country’s wild lands. Although conservationists like Gifford Pinchot advocated for the sustainable use of natural resources and preservationists like John Muir promoted the protection of national lands from the influence of man, both groups were exclusionary and classist. This class discrimination within American environmentalism continues today and presents an ethical conflict for a movement which promotes itself as working for the common good. The dilemma largely stems from the concept of wilderness which prevents access of what is
in Frey et al 1), is a theoretical frame for understanding the environmental impacts and the related adverse consequences of militarism and war-making (Frey et al 1). The nature of utilizing Agent Orange and other herbicides during the Vietnam War was felt by some researchers as injustice or toxic violence. The use of these herbicides (as mentioned throughout this paper) were to defoliate vegetation and inhibit future vegetation growth and to remove canopy covering along supply routes, military zones and areas along U.S. military bases. The scope and scale was much larger than the original plan of Operation Ranch Hand. However, the full scope of contamination will remain unknown due to the drifting of herbicides during the military spraying and the unaccounted-for stockpiles of herbicides that remained in the country after the war.
The article goes on the explain the negative results of this release of carbon dioxide, such as GHG emissions. This article answers questions regarding efforts to protect and the benefit of protecting coastal wetlands. It is useful as it goes into specific detail about one of the major problems caused by the lack of coastal wetland management. Knowing that the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is a major negative impact on the world, it may be useful in attempting to create a solution to that
It was Alfred Crosby who introduced the term ‘ecological imperialism’ to designate this form of environmental destruction caused under the supervision of Western imperialism. According to him, European imperialism is integrally associated with invading the indigenous region with ‘portmanteau biota’ (his collective term for the organisms brought by the colonizers) and/or exploiting the natural resources for their own benefit. In fact, there is a direct correlation between Western imperialism and environmental degradation in the colonized countries. The European colonizers created ‘Neo-Europes’ in regions which are climatically similar to the European countries, they were apparently less successful in the Middle East, China and Indian subcontinent. But this apparent failure is more than compensated by the unrelenting destruction of natural resources, flora and fauna, for their mercenary gains.
Environmentalism or also known as environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement. It concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment. Environmentalists advocate the lawful preservation, restoration and improvement of the natural environment, and may be referred to as a movement to control pollution, protect men, plant and animal diversity (Rowell, 1996). Environmental issues are part of history. Since early development of modern world, environment has been a major concern as it was ruined horribly.
In the 19th Century, Society in America was founded on the standards of racial prejudice and segregation. As a result, people of color were recognized as unequal and unimportant to social settings. However, People took a stand against the injustice of the law and created the impactful Naturalistic Movement. Naturalism implies a philosophical position in which many authors of literature exposed the harsh truth of Racism and the effects of the environment on the individual. Through the works of Charles Chesnutt, Mark Twain, and Paul Dunbar, the illusion of race is addressed using irony, characterization, and naturalistic elements in literature.
Civil Disobedience and Criminal Behavior In the “Letter To Birmingham” by: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr addresses the ongoing oppression of black people in the South during the 1960s, urging a change for society that everyone is equal under the law, and explaining the critical situation of Birmingham, Alabama. This letter is effective and powerful in its own way because it challenged the laws either just or unjust by state or federal governments which were being enforced and followed for centuries. But when Dr. King challenged those laws by using civil disobedience and voicing his disapproval it opened a door for societies to reconsider their purposes not by morals or virtues, but by simply asking this is it fair or even just? For a group of people
Elaborating on concepts from the previous chapters, Cronon discusses how and why New England in the 1800s was ecologically different from New England in the 1600s. The author lists many relevant issues which influenced the ecological change: deforestation, dams, crop disease, European pests, and so forth. Cronon states that there is a clear difference between New England before and after European colonization, but stresses the dangers of analyzing ecological change simply by contrasting two landscapes (before and after European colonization). Cronon discusses how disease helped to promote European expansion, and how economic and ecological imperialisms reinforced each other. He also mentions that Indians continuously evolved, and an earlier
Environmental injustice would more or less be considered a violation of civil rights, according to the Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 “prohibits discrimination based on race or national origin in federally funded programs and activities” (Fisher, 1995, p. 287). People could sue a company for stripping them of their civil rights. This headway in legal actions have resulted in polices like; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund) and the 1986 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) (Brulle & Pellow, 2006). When people started pushing back and demanding blame, it created more area of funds for hazardous waste cleanup and making sure there is a better monitoring
In the early 1960’s, the original state of the American environmental justice movement can be traced back to the emergence of the American Civil Rights movement. Prior to the concerned environmentalism with humanity’s adverse impact upon the environment, but there are arguments that are primarily concerned with the impact of an unhealthy environment that forcefully pushes upon a collective body of life, entailing both human and non-human existence, including in some instances plant life. I found the Environmental Racism and Environmental Justice more interestingly and I chose to write about that. According to the Environmental justice advocates, they argued that an intimate relationship exists between the trilogy of environmental racism,
(Bellows, 2014). The barriers in current federal law to successful environmental justice claims against local governments are varied. To file a claim under 65008, there has to be evidence of intentional environmental injustice based on race. (Bellows, 2014). With limited opportunities to bring environmental justice claims under federal law, opportunities within state law are increasingly important.