Phytoextraction: one of the mechanisms in phytoremediation, which is taking out toxic chemicals out of soil or water, mainly heavy metals with a high density. As can be seen, phytoextraction occurs underground as well as by the leaves (Jagtap, 2015). 2. Phyto-stabilization: The process of containing (immobilizing) pollutants (mainly heavy metals) within the unsaturated zone (Bolan, et al., 2011) (the unsaturated zone, or better known as the vadose zone, is the area between the top soil and the groundwater table (encyclopaedia brittanica, n.d.)). The pollutants are kept in the roots of the plants and directly reducing the possibility of contaminating off-site soils (Bolan, et al., 2011).
The results indicated the adaptation of Pseudomonas mendocina (biofilm forming bacteria) to high concentrations of benzoate (40mM) stress. It has been reported that several Pseudomonas species forms matrix associated sessile microbial structures called biofilms which allowed its existence in a variety of environmental stresses (Friedman and Kolter.2004; Singh et al.2006; Mc Dougald et al.2011). Biofilms protects its underlying cells from environmental cues, but mediates efficient biodegradation of toxic substances with less accumulation of metabolic intermediates (Vernhagen et al.2011). It has been observed that high concentration of organic compounds like benzoate in environment or in reactors at times create shock load and stressful situation to bacterial physiology (Ampe and Lindley.1996). To overcome such situations, bacterial cells enter biofilm mode and sustain (Bazire et al.2007).
BIOCHEMICAL OXIDATION Auxiliary treatment by biochemical oxidation of broke down and colloidal natural mixes is material to a couple of horticultural and modern wastewaters. Convergance of some less edible mixes may be diminished by co-digestion system. Evacuation effectiveness is restricted by the base nourishment fixation require to maintain the treatment biological system. Compound OXIDATION Compound oxidation is utilized to evacuate steady natural contaminations and deposit of biochemical oxidation. Cleansing by compound oxidation eliminates microscopic organisms and microbial pathogens by including ozone, chlorine or hypochlorite to wastewater.
Bacteria that can directly convert sugars to acetic acid in an anaerobic fermentation include Clostridium and Acetobacterium but they can not tolerate the acetic acid concentrations greater than a few percent. The product made from these bacteria should be focused while oxidative fermentation by Acetobacter can produce up to 20% acetic acid. Fast Technique: R. and R. schutzenbachi curum is used in this process. Acetic bacteria forms a thin silky film. Wine, grapes, grape fruit, malt, corn syrups, can be used as raw material.
After solidification of agar, the fresh colonies from the culture were taken and streaked on the blood agar. Incubated at 37℃ for 48-72 hours. After incubation, we were looking for the clear zone around the microbial colonies. This clear zone are the sign of biosurfactant producing microorganisms. Biochemical analysis of biosurfactant producing microorganisms The biosurfactant producing microorganisms then characterized by different types of test includes Motility Test, Gram Staining, Indole Test, Methyl Red Test, Citrate Test, Spore Staining, Catalase Test, Voges-Proskauer Test, Casein Hydrolysis, Starch Hydrolysis, Lipid Hydrolysis, Gelatin Liquifaction Test, Gelatin Hydrolysis, Oxidase Test.
BIOLOGICAL METHODS: Wastewater derived from domestic, industrial and other activities is mostly hazardous to human beings,animals and plants so they must be treated prior to disposal . However conventional waste water treatment technologies are not effective, due to the high operational cost of the treatment processes and highly skilled technicians are required which adds to the cost. Current pre-discharge treatments of industrial waste water are routinely performed using energy intensive ,unsustainable low performance treatment technologies which utilize physical, chemical and partly biological treatment processes. Due to the presence of these compounds such as phosphorus,carbon, nitrogen and metal ions in waste water the treatment using conventional methods becomes ineffective and partially treated waste water remains undesirable for discharge. Chemical treatments involves the addition of high
bedrock and soil. Chromium weathered from the rocks is deposited on the soil and groundwater. Chromium is also generated anthropogenically from various industrial processes which includes electroplating, leather tanning, wood preservations, manufacturing of dye, paint, paper, petroleum refining processes, metal finishing, alloysteel manufacturing, and lasers(Owlad et al., 2010). According to BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) and USEPA the maximum acceptable limit for Cr(VI) in drinking water is 0.05 mg/L and total chromium (Cr(VI) and Cr(III)) is 2 mg/L(Jain et al., 2010). Various conventional techniques have been employed for the removal of chromium from water which includes Reverse osmosis, Chemical precipitation, Filtration, Ion exchange,
I. INTRODUCTION Water is a basic need and essential for human needs. The clean water availability is a major concern in many developing countries including Indonesia (Song et al, 2009). Appan (1997), in a study stated that demand for clean water is needed in developing countries,. Sustainable water resources management should pay attention to the principle that the use of the water resources in accordance with the required quantity (Kim et al, 2007).
Organic particles are everything that is based on hydrocarbon. There are a number of different ways to define the amount of organic matter in wastewater, such as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Volatile Solids (VS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), , Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Total Solids (TS) . The oxidization of the organic material occur in all of the above methods involve. Micro organisms are used for the oxidizing in BOD5 and for COD a chemical oxidizer is used. The nonorganic water waste pollutants mainly includes nutrients such as ammonium and phosphate.
(Chandran N.D.,2010). Thus incorporation of hydrocarbons in natural environment is not desirable, makes its treatment and proper disposal inevitable. Various important processes influence the fate of hydrocarbons in nature, like sorption, volatilisation, abiotic transformation (chemical or photochemical), and bioransformation. Since microorganisms play an important role in biogeochemical cycles, the biotransformation is of major concern. The other methods mentioned either just fixes or transports the contaminants or are not very effective in nature (Peixoto R.S., 2011).