Without egalitarnism liberty is nonexistent. Egalitarnism, better understood as equality, provides individuals with the opportunities to compete fairly in any socioeconomic system. During the twentieth century, many philosophers studied, opposed or supported, the validity of this claim. Four of the most notable philosophers who studied this validity were John Mill, John Rawls, Michael Walzer, and Robert Nozick. Robert Nozick and John Mill’s studies focused on harm principle and the entitlement theory whereas, Michael Walzer and John Rawls emphasized the importance of upholding equality in nation states.
Nozick and Mill’s claims of liberty over equality are idiotic because of their support of minimal governments. According to the Nozick, a minimal state is critical for a just society because it …show more content…
Liberty can not exist without proper socioeconomic equalities given to individuals. For example, when looking at American slavery and the current strife of Black Americans, their socioeconomic imprisonment is obvious. Historically, America does not value the lives of Blacks; compared to their White counterparts. The disvalue, belittlement, and hatred of Blacks has created a political, social, and economic society of inequalities for them. Due to these discrepancies, many Blacks are shackled, bounded, and chained to the notion of Black pathology. Black pathology is understood as the widely held belief that Black people have weak morals, hate education, love crime, and are economically lazy. Although the physical aspect of American slavery was removed from law in 1863, its mental and emotional entity still remains problematic for Blacks. Consequently, this example is used to vividly illustrate how Blacks are still not free today. Their liberty stolen, looted, and embezzled. In order for Blacks to be truly freed, they need to be seen as equal; otherwise they, and people alike, are slaves to the socioeconomic society that makes them
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Frederick Douglass’s “What the Black Man Wants” captures the need for change in post Civil War America. The document presses the importance for change, with the mindset of the black man being, ‘if not now then never’. Parallel to this document is the letter of Jourdon Anderson, writing to his old master. Similar to Douglas, Mr. Anderson speaks of the same change and establishes his worth as freed man to his previous slave owner. These writings both teach and remind us about the evils of slavery and the continued need for equality, change, and reform.
This is exemplified by the fact that emancipated slaves were required to be under labor contracts to work as “servants,” because “vagrancy” was considered as a misdemeanor. The Black Codes were designed to limit the options of the emancipated slaves, and thereby forcing the “Negro” in “slave” circumstances, without it technically being considered as the term “slavery.” The codes went around the emancipation decree, by using the term “servant,” in order to avoid the word “slave,” for the sake of getting away with slavery. The Black Codes maintained the situation of slavery, but manipulated it, in order to coin it as a different concept.
Before, during, and long after the Civil War blacks were discriminated against in almost every form of life. They had to fight and be patient to be accepted as equals among their white counterparts; this process took form over a long period of time, and after many failures, blacks were truly equal in the eyes of the government. The thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments which were passed in the late 1860’s were supposed to bring political, social, and economic equality for the blacks; however, this was not the case, while in some facets of life blacks obtained more freedoms they had to wait many years after these amendments were passed to be fully equal to whites. The thirteenth amendment abolished slavery in the United States.
While the enslaved African American were liberated physically, the system of Jim Crow and numerous ideologies and/ or doctrines kept them idle as a race in the American society. The Reconstruction Era promoted a new culture of people with new ideas, but the violence, injustice and torment impeded the growth of the African American people and what the nation could be as a whole. Today, we, the African American people, still face these same injustices. We are tormented by police and while we are the “minority”, we make up the prisons’ “majority.” A fair trial does not apply to those of color due to the many prejudices against us.
The author found that more people of color, especially black males are under the control our criminal justice system than were enslaved in 1850. The author supports the pervious idea by using specific examples such as the “War on Drugs” to show people of color are targeted more by law enforcement officers and scrutinize harsher by our courts for drug laws but the drug usage is used at the same rate by blacks and whites. With the help of mass-media, the “crack” epidemic in inner cities, the War on Drugs policies, the “Get tough on crime” policies, and the propaganda about people of color all have influenced the way mainstream society thinks about blacks. The author found that mainstream society believes that black people commits more crime and uses more drugs than white people, so therefore blacks deserved to incarcerated. However, Michelle Alexander disproves in “The New Jim Crow” that blacks commit more crimes than whites, the drug usage rates are the same between both races, propaganda has influenced the way mainstream society views blacks and that the “War on Drugs” and the “Get Tough on Crime” was policies targeted towards inner cities and people of color with the intent to enslave them in the criminal justice system by giving them felonies in which people of color are disenfranchise by society.
During the 19th century most political controversies focused on the issue of slavery, many believed this issue was wicked and cruel and strongly disagreed with the idea of slavery, being active and acceptable. Owning the fact that many disagreed with slavery, the Republican Party announced a speech- all territories of the United States were said to be free and they were entitled to deny anyone who gives any legal existence to slavery in any territory of the United States (Document A). Many important figures in the Republican Party did not agree with nor supported anyone or anything that advocated for slavery. Slavery meant men, women, and even innocent children had to be treated unfairly and taken advantage of. All of this controversy
African Americans have faced injustice and discrimination for centuries. One major problem blacks had to overcome was the institution of slavery. Slavery in the United States began in 1619 and ended in 1865 with the ratification of the 13th amendment. This declared that all forms of slavery or servitude be outlawed. Yet even after the conclusion of slavery, blacks had to face discrimination and prejudice until they were viewed as equal.
The black folk were freed by the abolition of slavery, yet this new freedom was not so. Ther identity was forever fractured between black and American, and even after they internalized the whites’ perspectives of them, they still wanted to be both without the disadvantages and racism. They were degraded, dehumanize, and shamed for their lack of education and job skills. In 1865, the Freemen’s Bureau was established by Congress to provide them with aid after living in slavery and not owning tools, homes, or land.
Michelle Alexander, similarly, points out the same truth that African American men are targeted substantially by the criminal justice system due to the long history leading to racial bias and mass incarceration within her text “The New Jim Crow”. Both Martin Luther King Jr.’s and Michelle Alexander’s text exhibit the brutality and social injustice that the African American community experiences, which ultimately expedites the mass incarceration of African American men, reflecting the current flawed prison system in the U.S. The American prison system is flawed in numerous ways as both King and Alexander points out. A significant flaw that was identified is the injustice of specifically targeting African American men for crimes due to the racial stereotypes formed as a result of racial formation. Racial formation is the accumulation of racial identities and categories that are formed, reconstructed, and abrogated throughout history.
Have you ever imagined what it was like for an African American person back in the 1800’s when they were considered “free”? Back then, black people were used as slaves, and they didn’t gain their absolute freedom from slavery until 1865 when it was completely abolished. They gave Africans certain rights that weren’t completely fair. It really makes you question whether black people were really free in that time. When all blacks were released from slavery, what rights did they really have?
Over the decades, mass incarceration has become an important topic that people want to discuss due to the increasing number of mass incarceration. However, most of the people who are incarceration are people of color. This eventually leads to scholars concluding that there is a relationship between mass incarceration and the legacy of slavery. The reason is that people of color are the individuals who are overrepresented in prison compared to whites. If you think about it, slavery is over and African Americans are no longer mistreated; however, that is not the case as African Americans continue to face oppression from the government and police force.
Imagine living in a society where the tone of one’s skin subjected them to unfair treatment and rules. This was the reality to African-Americans in the South from the end of the nineteenth century until the middle of the twentieth century. Richard Wright describes the experiences of living with Jim Crow laws in his essay “The Ethics of Living Jim Crow.” African-Americans were oppressed, especially the women, and forced to follow absurd rules. Many times, the police only encouraged these unlawful rules and targeted Blacks.
In The Meaning of Freedom, activist Angela Davis critiques the plausibility of democracy and collective freedom in the United States. By examining parallels between slavery and the carceral state, Davis contends that the two systems mutually characterize black people as disposable and compels them to incapacitation. Focusing on the two oppressive systems’ reliance on the maintenance of ignorance, Davis discusses how this ignorance is connected to America’s dominant sentiments of capitalism and self-interest, which, altogether, perpetuate cycles of abuse that disproportionately harm communities of color and lower-class peoples. As a result, this propels the creation of social hierarchies which, because it inherently cultivates inequalities, causes America’s classification as a “democracy” to be impossible.
After Bacon’s Rebellion, indentured servitude was no longer an option given to black people. Due to a new set of laws called slave codes, freedom and equity became almost
This new American identity opposes injustice. Justice stands as an important moral and political concept. A prominent component of justice is liberty, which frees society from oppressive restrictions imposed by authority on one's lifestyle. Another