Through the reverse transcription, the viral RNA is transcribed to viral double-stranded DNA. This process is catalyzed by an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, also known as reverse transcriptase, which is encoded by the viral genome, which is integrated within the cell genome by integrase. This protein cleaves nucleotides of each 3’ ends of the double helix DNA creating two sticky ends, transfers the modified provirus DNA into the cell nucleus and facilitates its integration into the host genome. The integration of proviral DNA and the expression of the provirus require that target cell is in an activated state. Monocytes/macrophages, microglial cells, and latently infected quiescent CD4+ T-cells contain integrated provirus and are important long-living cellular reservoirs of HIV.
The movement of the endocytosed protein which is destined for the apical surface to fuse with and also the movement of extracellular materials from one side of the epithelial cells to another can be termed as transcytosis. With respect to concept, transcytosis can be grouped into three processes namely; endocytosis, exocytosis and transcellular transport (Pravda,2011). Though transcytosis is tightly controlled by the cell it also has the potential for transepithelial movement of bacteria and other pathogens, hence it sometimes becomes an etiologic factor in the body(Pravda,2011). Trancytosis occurs in hepatocytes and this phenomenon is a typical example of transcellular transport . Here the apical membrane form bile and the basolateral membrane face blood.
In order for vaccines to work appropriately, they have to operate in a very convoluted way to make sure they live up to their standards. 1. Vaccines are developed by using the bacteria’s specimen that has been either killed or damaged which are dissolved in a solution. When the vaccine is injected into the body, the specimen revives that person’s immune system. After being injected, the immune system will now fight against the microbe by forming antibodies.
The animals are then screened to check which one shows the phenotype similar to human diseases. The two most effective ways to generate mutations are by exposing organisms to X-rays or to the chemical N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). Transgenesis Transgenic animals are generated by adding foreign genetic information to the nucleus of embryonic cells, thereby inhibiting gene expression. As against the use of X-ray or ENU, transgenesis uses the technique of injection of foreign DNA or the use of retroviral vector to introduce the transgene into an organism’s DNA. To increase the size of DNA fragments used in transgenesis, scientists are cloning them in yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes (YACs and BACs).
Radiation therapy is not necessarily better than chemotherapy or surgery, as it has both benefits and risks. Instead, choosing the right treatment depends on the case of each individual patient. Chemotherapy, which utilizes drugs delivered to the entire body, prevents the cancer cells from spreading. On the other hand, surgery and radiation therapy target one specific area. Often times, patients will undergo chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before getting surgery to remove it entirely.
One of the ethical issues of today that the medical field is facing is about genetic engineering. A genetic engineering technology also known as genetic modification is a way in which the organism’s genetic genome, a complete set of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is being directly manipulated using biotechnology. You can customize your offspring by having the opportunity to choose which genetic trait your unborn child should posses, best examples are gender, eyes and the color of the hair. Genetic engineering in lay man’s term is designer baby. The idea of genetic modification has started to cure illnesses by replacing an unhealthy DNA of an unborn child to a healthy one to eliminate the occurrence of diseases that can be carried out hereditarily
Recently, researchers did an experiment which include the screening of chemical substance that will treat the disease and also the information from the genomic used to create a drugs for people who have specific genetic data. In developmental process, there were some drugs that were left before and pharmacogenomics used these drugs back. For example, Gencaro is an improvement of β-blocker drug bucindolol which prohibited by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) because of this substance can lead to heart failure. But after several tests, Gencaro shows that the drugs work effectively in heart function in two different
An additional form is microdosing ─ the administering of doses too small to cause adverse reactions ─ which can be used in human volunteers, whose blood is then analyzed. Furthermore, scientists have begun using a new form of testing, “Microfluidic chips (“organ on a chip”), which are lined with human cells and recreate the functions of human organs” (“Animal Testing”). Lastly, artificial human skin and computer models, such as virtual reconstructions of human molecular systems, are just recently being used to test products (“Animal Testing”). As shown above, the alternate ways to test products and the many others that exist need to be put into effect to save the
Informed consent is the process of seeking the consent of a patient to a medical procedure (Bowman, Spicer, & Iqbal, 2011). It also allows doctors and patients to consider the ethical code and prevent any legal issues. In the germline gene therapy, the operation is mainly conducted on the embryo and foetus. The genetic diseases are detected in advance by gene mapping, such as cystic fibrosis. The patient, the foetus, has not be informed before the therapy as he or she is still in gravidity.
Human cloning is the formation of genetically copy of an existing human. The word is normally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the duplication of human tissues and cells. There are two usually discussed types of theoretical human cloning, namely reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. Instead of just making specific cells or tissues, reproductive cloning would involve making a complete cloned human while therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in transplants and medicine. Two common ways of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are pluripotent stem cell induction and somatic-cell nuclear transfer.
5. Scientist are working on a way to end the need for organ transplant all together. They are using gene therapy to generate stem cells at the site of the damaged organ. This would use the patients stem cells to regenerate the organ while still in the body. It is currently only being tested on mice.
In 1846, Dr. William Morton was wrongly credited of being the first person to have used sulfuric-ether as a sedative for surgery. A few minutes after delivering a child, Long died of a stroke in Athens, Georgia. Sadly, one year after he died he was officially declared the discoverer of anesthesia by the National Eclectic Medical Association. There are numerous memorials, statues, and paintings honoring Dr. Crawford Long, and there is The Crawford Long museum in Jefferson, Georgia. Also, in 1931, he had a hospital named after him called Emory Crawford Long Hospital, which later was renamed Emory University Hospital Midtown in 2009.
In the early 1940’s penicillin was created, however it did not cure this disease. In 1943, Albert Schatz, a young microbiologist began working under a pioneering scientist named Selman Waksman. He would spend up to 18 hours a day looking for an antibiotic under his microscope. After 3 months of studying on October 19th, he discovered streptomycin, an antibiotic that seemed to be a miracle cure for tuberculosis. He gave the first dose to his mother.
After reading about therapeutic cloning, I’ve come to the conclusion that it is no different than what researchers are trying to do with ES cell research. The difference in the process is that the egg is penetrated, without destroying it and the nucleus is removed with the host DNA and replaced with a nucleus from the cell of the donor that requires the ES cell for therapy. At that point the egg is left to develop into a blastocyst using the donor DNA and the process of extracting the inner cell mass to cultivate the stem cells that are genetically compatible with the