Rousseau would argue that as the general will is the collected will of the community, and by following the general will each individual will be following himself. The individual would not be following a third party, but following his own will. In this way, by obeying the law enacted by the general will an individual would be truly free. In Rousseau’s opinion one can only be free in a society by following the general will. It will not be an unabated freedom like that of the state of nature, but it will be a civil liberty, a moral freedom.
(pg 9) This government would ensure that one’s freedom could not impinge upon that of another’s. By using reason to secures freedoms, Locke is essentially saying look inward to yourself, using your own reason as a citizen to give the authority to the government, seen in “Men being, as has been said, by nature, all free, equal, and independent, no one can be put out of this estate, and subjected to the political power of another, without his own consent.” This gave a new power to the freedom individual, stressing not only that we are free to
Natural law theory states that there are laws that are immanent in nature and the man made laws should correspond as closely as possible. Man can’t produce natural laws but he can find and discover through his reasoning. If a law is contrary to a natural law then it is not a law. Laws should be related to morality. It is a concept of a body of moral principal that is same for all the man and it can only be find through human reasoning alone.
In Ralph Waldo Emerson’s writings “Self Reliance” and “American Scholar”, he writes about how being a true individual means that one must have his own beliefs, and not copy someone else’s ideas. In addition, he believes that society is the antagonist, actively working against individuals.
First, we will consider Locke’s view regarding the social contract to notice the differences between his view and that of Hume. According to Locke, the state of nature is one where men are free and independent to do as they desire as long as it is within the bounds of the law of nature and morality, but that a contract is agreed upon because of the inconveniences in that state, and to deviate away from the states of war that occur between individuals. Locke claims that the state of nature is historical since men can for agreements and still be in that state. But then provides one exception that drives men out of that state, which is when they mutually agree to form a community. Hume does not support these claims, and argues
In order to restore freedom to mankind, Rousseau suggests there has to be a social contract. The establishment of a social contract in the society requires mankind to wilfully let a political entity govern him and his private property. This kind of submission is called the general will and it aims to govern mankind by allowing free and equal co-existence. Rousseau’s argument is based on the single notion that mankind is generally good by nature, but made evil by the society. However, his argument is not plausible since it does not explain how a society which he claims to be evil is composed of good mankind.
In this way, the natural state of humans is not to form a city-state but rather to exist in a state of equality in of itself, with no form of government that puts one above another. In this way, government comes to be not because of human being’s state of nature but rather as a consequence of it. Existing in Locke’s state of nature is the executive power of law and the ability to judge actions that go against natural law. Given that, Locke writes that “self-love will make men partial to themselves and their friends: and on the other side, that ill nature, passion and revenge will carry them too far in punishing others,” and therefore, “…civil government is the proper remedy for the inconveniences of the state of nature…” (Second Treatise of Government 12). Thus, it is due to passion and bias that prevents men from being judge in their own cases and grievances that
Existentialism finds the answer to the absurdities present in the world including issues about human freedom. Dudley (ND) averred that Kant’s idea of freedom is inclusive than the libertarian thought. Further, Kant illuminated that choices are determined by autonomous will and are not subject to restrictions. Likewise, there is freedom of the will and that will is subject to the condition of genuine freedom of choice. Kant wrote the Metaphysics of Ethics (1797) where he described his ethical system that is based on a belief that the reason is the final authority for morality.
Indeed in Plato’s ideal republic the state’ laws are replaced by the “philosopher king’s” law. These philosopher kings were to be trained and would do so through rationally perceived dictates of ultimate virtue. They would cease to be encumbered by the various legal forms but instead become characterised by wisdom and be accepted through its very excellence. The closest Plato nears to the concept of natural law theory is in the Republic whereby he analogises health, as the natural order of the body, and justice as the natural order of things within the state, and in his discussion of the formal idea of justice as “just by nature” and finally in Laws, in which the Athenian Stranger, discussing how one would establish a state in which laws have a greater power than the rulers, proposes to speak about divine law which would supply the need for a governing higher
He said “the life of the instinctive man is shut up within the circle of his private interests. But, if our life is to be great and free, we must escape this prison. The main way of doing so is through knowledge, because all acquisition of knowledge is an enlargement of the Self. Through knowledge our mind becomes capable of that union with the universe which constitutes its highest good. Knowledge makes us citizens of the universe, and in this citizenship of the universe consist man’s true freedom, and his liberation from the thraldom of narrow hopes and fears.” Aristotle and Russell have not just talked about knowledge but what they have proposed is the ultimate purpose and meaning