According to Adam Smith (Year), in a system where the market is determined by the relationship between demand and supply, both buyers and sellers seeks to maximize their own benefit, there exist 'invisible hands' that can direct resources to where they would be the most valuable. And that is the price. However, there are occasions when invisible hands don’t work. That is market failure. More specifically, market failure is a situation in which a market isn’t able to allocate the goods and service efficiently. In other words, not all of the existing resources are used effectively. In such situation, government intervention is needed. There are four main categories of market failure requiring government intervention: λ To provide merit goods …show more content…
That is to say, one person can’t be prevented from using it; also, if one person is using it, it doesn’t reduce others’ enjoyment of using it. Public goods include fresh air, national defense, street light, etc. It would be impossible to let private markets to provide public due to the free-rider problem. In other words, everyone wants to receive the benefit of it, but no one wants to pay for it. As a result, the goods is not produced at all. That is why government need to provide public goods. For example, everyone wants to be protected and live in security, but no one wants to pay the defense budget spontaneously. If government fail to provide national defense for its citizens, the country would be vulnerable under invasion threat. Therefore, government has to intervene to provide public goods and correct this market …show more content…
That is to say, the interest of the bystander is not taken into account. There are positive and negative externality. For example, the car that one person drives will produce toxic exhaust that will damage others’ health. The others, who are damaged by this negative effect, have no choice but to take it, and they won’t receive any compensation for it. As a result, externalities causes markets to be inefficient and fail to maximize total surplus. Therefore, government must take actions to internalize the externality. For example, it can impose a tax on the producer of the pollution or anything that may harm others’ interest, to reduce the negative effect. The following part of the investigative work will start from recognizing the issue of contaminate, and then evaluate the current performance of the British government policy of environment in air quality control. Environmental protection is always a major concern for government. As a worldwide problem, pollution has caused great damage on human health and world environment. And in most cases, this effect is irreversible. Therefore, the intervention of government and use of instrument to tackle the environmental issue is necessary. Pollution can be divided into different types,
Economic activities of some persons’ result in the deaths of other persons, also know as commodity pricing case, is an actual lifeboat example. The Earth, our lifeboat where some have the riches and others are left with droughts, famine, and poverty. The developing countries depend greatly on the prices of their raw material industry. However, when this prices drop, these countries have to face many calamities. Power, politics, alliances, globalization are few of the reasons for which world pricing is altered causing deaths of some people.
Recently, air pollution has been changed since 1950s, Firstly in 1950s, air pollution was visible and mostly caused by factories. Now, air pollution has become invisible because of the cars and vehicle pollution. The main reason for this rising problem is because people are vehicle independent. In conclusion, governments should take actions to this urgent issue which risks to people 's health.
It demands that since the government benefits from the labor of its people and while also supporting its interests in specified industries, that it should also give back to infuse and invigorate the flow of money and opportunity when it stagnates. Because in a modern society full of growth and choice, companies that succeed are the ones with deep pockets, strong advertising and political interest of stakeholders and money-makers. Basically, those who benefit continue to feed into the system in order to keep it energized. This way reflects the complexities which support success and lead to inevitable downturn in equal measure. Economist John Maynard Keynes studied this in an attempt to understand how The Great Depression occurred and to outline ways we can prevent such broad economic catastrophe.
However, once the market gets overly saturated with different firms there becomes a surplus of product. Once there is a surplus of product, and since the demand of the product is already being met, the equilibrium price will starts to decline. Subsequently firms will not be able to meet their variable and fixed costs, thus leading to the firm to exit the market. Having so many different firms selling one type of product creates major instability for the people of Tap, and creating an unpredictable standard of living for all
The tragedy of the commons is a theory that suggests that rational people in a group will more often than not, act in a manner that suits their own personal interests and ultimately be detrimental to the group’s interest (Chang, 2011). The tragedy of the commons is a theory made by Garrett Hardin. Today an example of a tragedy of the commons is pollution. A ‘commons’ can be defined as a resource that is used openly for the enjoyment of all members of society. It can be seen that people tend to compare their own personal assets to public goods and value their own belongings more than public goods (Fioramonti 2014, Class Notes).
Externalities can be defined as whenever the benefit or cost of consuming a good affects people that are not actually consuming it. They come in two forms: positive and negative externalities. Positive externality can be defined as this occurs when the consumption or production of a good causes a benefit to a third party an example can be education when people go in college because they want to get an education, probably so they can get good jobs, live happy lives, etc. But them getting an education does not just benefit them, it benefits society as well. Some may go on to invent handy products, or come up with important ideas, which everyone else will gain from.
Overall, Our Government has continuously played an essential role in our lives daily. To the extent in which government involvement in American society is being debated and is the central focus of political contention. A Government is necessary after all to deliver amenities to citizens who may not be able to provide adequately for themselves. In “We the People” by Ginsberg it states that, “That public good services include defense against foreign aggression, maintenance of public order, a stable currency, enforcement of contractual obligations and property rights, and a guarantee of some measure of social justice” (pg.13). Even though were taxed to provide these services.
Chinnawat adisornwattanarom(Meliodas or Ping) 561611035 Economics Discuss whether tax is the most effective way in internalising negative externality Tax could be the most effective way in internalizing negative externality. First of all, what is tax? Why Is it so effect to many people?
In a command economy where the government makes all the decisions about production and controls the allocation of scare resources, everybody should have access to services and the government’s protection. For example, in order to improve access to health care for the poor people, which is very essential, the limited resources should be used to build a hospital rather than another private factory to increase the efficiency of production for few individuals. In a market economy where there is no intervention by the government and all production is in private hands, citizens are focused on producing goods as efficiently as possible to make the best attainable profit for themselves without caring about improving society’s infrastructure. Furthermore, caring only about the desires of the rich people, increases the strained relations between poor and rich. The better way to use all the human resources would be to help the poor people out of poverty and reach advancement through work and
Introduction Government expenditure is a way in which the government tries to address the social and economical issues of poverty and inequality among their citizens,all these three being inter-locked with each other. Poverty is not having enough money to meet basic needs e.g food, clothing and shelter. Its hunger-not knowing where your next meal will come from, It is being sick and not having the means to see a doctor, Its being unable to access a school and read ,being unable to sustain yourself, it is living everyday without any acknowledgment of what tomorrow will bring or how one will survive. Its not being able to enjoy recreational activities, not having means to send kids to a trip, pay for a school play, not having the means to pay
The government should find measures to prevent pollution and provide them with a healthier life. While the duties OF the government would be to introduce and enforce stricter laws, that alone will not be enough. For rules and regulations to be implemented, the best way is to for people whom the rules are made, to follow the rules. This makes the rights associated with the rules effective.
DesJardins describes utilitarianism as “an ethical tradition that directs us to make decisions based on the overall consequences of our acts” (An Intro, Pg.24). The free market model is justified under this definition because this model allows consumers to demand goods that producers can then supply. Individuals have the power under this model to pay only for the things they want badly enough to justify that price. If a consumer does not think the product is worth that price they are able to take their business elsewhere. Likewise, producers can decide how much of their product they are willing to sell at a certain price and can choose to only sell that amount.
This journal, available since 1997, was published by the Cambridge University Press which has been around since 1534. This article gives insight on how much money and resources are ruined each year by China’s pollution problem and puts numbers on the losses. This journal gives information about what diseases and effects the pollution has on human life and explains how unavoidable pollution is to the citizens. Pollution not only has an effect on life, but also their GDP. While China is trying to increase its GDP, it is also hurting the increase of production with the negative aspects of pollution.