In Emmett Rensin 's Vox article, "The Smug Style in American Liberalism", he criticizes the smug air found within the minds of modern liberals. He lays out the mindset "smug style" as "…a way of conducting politics, predicated on the belief that American life is not divided by moral difference or policy divergence… but by the failure of half the country to know what 's good for them." He gains a sense of ethos in the essay due to his credibility as a liberal writer and cements his reliability using relevant examples to solidify his argument. He plays upon the emotions of his audience with an expert use of pathos with references to real examples of the harsh treatment of people deemed "wrong" by liberals. He also highlights common unflattering traits that are common with the liberal masses.
With the ever growing list of social programs, subsidies, and entitlements, people start to look at the government as their solution rather than the cause of their problems. The entitlement mentality, in turn, encourages the growth of government and the cycle continues, creating a downward spiral toward disaster. Liberalism is obviously a loose and rather obscure concept covering several ideas, not always compatible with one another in different historical contexts. It extends from radical free market capitalism to certain forms of the welfare state, from Ludwig von Mises to John Rawls, from Reaganomics to the European
Liberalists initially fought back against this authoritarian rule by establishing federalist governments, presidents with "legally defined powers," and citizenship. However, liberals soon began adopting "unitary" governments or "centralised forms of federalism," which allowed the central government the ability to "control political autonomy" in the localities and were more effective in maintaining order and unity. As Ben Loveman stated, "in practice, liberalism and authoritarianism merged," constitutional presidents acted like dictators, but did so "in accord with the constitution". Liberals defend this as "necessary to satisfy the demands of political order and economic progress," clearly demonstrating the impact of positivism and 'order and progress' mentality on liberal elite ideology. And originally, liberal elites used "'republic' or 'representative government' in the sense of rule by an elected aristocracy," meaning the very foundation of liberal ideology tilted towards a form of authoritarian, concentrated rule.
John Locke’s political theory offers an extraordinary paradigm, critiquing the normal paradigm of his time, space and socio-economic milieu (McDONALD 1973 : 602 - 604). He is a radical proponent of individual freedom, toleration, conscience and a civil government. Lockean ideas in the contemporary world are broadly classified into two extreme interpretations of liberal constitutionalism and Marxism. Locke is economically mercantile, politically conservative and highly Christian in his political and moral theoretical framework. This essay will focus on portraying the grounds on which Locke is considered a modern liberal constitutionalist, taking into account his major works, A Letter Concerning Toleration(1689) and The Second Treatise of Civil Government(1689).
Liberalism developed in the 1970s as some scholars began arguing that realism was outdated. The increase in globalization, the expeditious rise in communications technology, and the increase in international trade meant that states could no longer rely on simple power politics to decide matters. Jehangir (2012) states liberalism can be crudely defined as the “freedom for the individual” as it believes that humans are good natured beings. Liberalism’s core ideals stress individualism, human rights, universality, freedom from authority, right to be treated equally under the protection of law and duty to respect and treat others as “ethical subjects” as well as freedom for social action. Rob (2008), argues that although the UN may not be effective militarily, it is good at providing humanitarian aid, which would seem to fit the liberal definition of an organization that provides for the people.
Liberalism, along with realism, is one of the main schools of thought in international relations.According to liberals, international relations is not only controlled by the relationship between states but also includes and emphasises the role of other actors. During WWI and WWII the main academic competitor to the Realist paradigm was idealism., They looked into numerous beliefs of realism and recommended possible ideologies to alter the world pursuing supremacy and conflict into a unique one in which peace and cooperation amongst states might conquer. The faith that liberals have is that substantial universal cooperation is possible and power politics can be moved at the core of the realist paradigm. (Lawrence 1913, 3-5)
Neoliberalism is a political ideology that has become one of the dominant schools of thought in many modern countries, and has therefore become intricately woven into the globalization of society. Globalization is a broad term that refers to the increasing relations between different countries that spans all aspects of life, inclusive of social, political, and economic. It is this increasing sense that these relationships stretch across borders of specific countries that helps to create more global citizens as opposed to national citizens (Steger 15). With the governments of countries becoming increasingly involved with one another, and with neoliberalism being so present in these countries political ideologies, it makes sense that neoliberalism would play a vital role in current globalization. By examining some of the main tenants of neoliberalism philosophy, and through studying concrete examples, we can see how they have been influential in shaping modern routes of globalization, while also taking into consideration that this may not be inherently good by examining pushback.
Liberalism The macro theory that can best explain this issue is Liberalism, because since the end of World War II, states are no longer at war with each other; instead they work together, recognizing there are interdependency and the importance of economic and social issues. There are few basic assumptions of the liberal approach. One of its assumptions rest on the pluralist image in which the actors are not only states but also non-state, transnational actors, such as prominent individuals, NGOs, IGOs. According to (Mingst 1999), Liberal views the state as the one that maintains the fundamental rules of the game, which makes sure the various interests of both, governmental and societal actors, are contested equally. Liberalists believe
Nevertheless, populism, for İlkay Sunar, has some common points. It consist of trends of ideologies which question the dominant power by sharing common cultural elements. The patronage relations is crucial to sustain the support of the people through delivering benefits (Sunar, 1984: 2076-7). The populism, from this point of view could be observable with the rise of Democrat Party. However, at this point, Zafer Toprak makes another distinction between intellectual populism and political populism.
Liberalism in international relations is represented by contradicting claims about the necessity of the conflict as a way of resolving contention among members of the international community and vice versa highlights the possibility of peace between independent states. American presidnet Ronald Regan in his speech beore the British Parliament stated that government based on respect for individual freedoms is reflected in its foreign policy of restraint and peaceful inclinations. (Doyle, 1997, page 205) Throughout the times, liberalism has gone through many changes and has established different varieties of the theory. The first stage of liberalism, known as philosophic liberalism, lasted from the 17th to the early 19th century. A philosopher, John Locke was the first one to point out liberal thoughts and views.