Religions have existed for millenniums, cultivation and sculpting the old world into what it is today. Each religion is unique in its own sense, meaning that each religion is its own mix, it’s own jam. Every one of these jams, or religions, have been spread across nations. Some jams are smooth like butter, finding easy acceptance and even easier assimilation, whereas some jams are chunky and laden with difficulties. Buddhism’s jam was one of interesting circumstance, containing a vary of smooth and chunky consistency. Ultimately, the response to the spread of Buddhism in China was mainly positive acceptance, but at certain times, negative.
The fall of Rome was mainly because of plagues wiping out most of the population. The fall of the Han dynasty began from decentralized rule. However, outside invasions had an effect on the fall of both classical civilizations.
Han China was a Confucian state. However, they did not follow the true Confucian philosophies. Instead, the emperor, Emperor Wu, had a very influential Confucian philosopher create a more emperor-centric base of Confucianism. Being forced to study a religion did not drive the Han scholars to work harder, they began to slack and almost
In the North, religion was closely intertwined with political power. Therefore, many powerful monasteries were built, and a bureaucratic, organized clergy developed. There were entrepreneurial monasteries that handled the land and cash, and protected itself from the attacks by the religions with contradicting views, such as the Daoists and Confucians. On the other hand, South China was not as geographically concentrated and skillful clergies won over cynical scholars though open debates. Buddhism was more of a tool to spread Chinese culture southward and compete against southern cults, instead of being more political like
Many people have mistaken Confucianism as a religion. However, it is a system of belief, a philosophy. This belief emphasizes on respect and harmony of relationships. Moreover, it pushed for a well-ordered society by accentuating human relationships, a righteous leader and a good education. Confucius, a philosopher and a teacher, founded Confucianism. He grew up in the period of warring states, a time of chaos and internal hostilities during the Zhou Dynasty. Therefore, Confucius’ ultimate goal was to transform the Chinese society into a state of unity and righteous. However, Confucianism did not flourish until the Han Dynasty. It also played a different role in the Song Dynasty.
Confucianism has had a powerful influence on Chinese culture, and will likely continue to as long as the Chinese people adopt the values into their everyday lives. Although there pure Confucians may not exist in abundance, many others still practice certain aspects of this ideology. As long as humans desire to become better, more respectful people, the centuries old Confucian ideology will continue to have an influence on modern
Daoist philosophy places emphases on an instinctive awareness, supported by balanced contact with nature, and rejects everything that is not natural. The principles of the Daoist encouraged isolation from humanity for personal development in nature and attaining balance between yin and yang. Confucian philosophy seeks order and social stability. The philosophy states that junzi (superior person) who has ren (human heartedness), exemplifies the ideal social order sought. An individual could become a junzi by promoting certain qualities like understanding of suffering and a quest of morality and righteousness. Confucius and his disciple Mencius had an influence on Chinese thought and social practice. Chinese traditions of worshiping deceased ancestors and exceptional leaders inspired the growth of Confucianism as a philosophic custom and religion. Confucianism was established as the state’s official doctrine by Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty. However, both philosophies of Confucianism and Daoism believed that anyone can develop wisdom or skill, regardless of social status or birth.
The Chang’an, which was the capital, was a city of merchants, and entertainment such as tea houses and restaurants with foreign food. The elites of the Tang had a mixed background, understanding the customs and system of other nations. This caused the ruling elites to be more knowledgeable, flexible, and adapting, compared to other dynasties. The Tang Legal Code was a major set of rules established during this time. The Tang Code enunciated general principles of the law and listed specific offenses and punishments. It was later used as a model for other societies such as the Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. Punishment carried depending on the status of the violator. The Tang Code was a result in Legalist thinking, but also Confucian values. Legalism was apparent though determining the appropriate punishment for a particular crime. However, Confucianism was apparent since the killing of a family member was worse than killing a stranger, resulting in a harsher crime. Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism also flourished throughout the Tang dynasty. The Tang were a mix of Confucian and Legalist rule, but most were Buddhist, resulting in many Buddhist temples. The reaction of the growth of Buddhism resulted in scholar, Han Yu criticizing its growth. Han Yu was a Confucian scholar, advocating the use of filial piety which mean rulers retain loyalty to their subjects. Later, Buddhist monasteries were closed down
Government officials in China rebuked Buddhism as corrupting the Confucian belief system that was in place, after the imperial structure was restored in 570 C.E. These Chinese officials responded hostilely to Buddhism’s spread throughout China as Han Yu, a leading Confucian scholar ridiculed Buddhism as “no more than a cult of barbarian peoples spread to China.” (Doc 4) Due to Han Yu’s position as an official in the Tang imperial court, his belief of Buddhism being a barbarian religion suggests that this idea was an
Han Yu cited Confucius in his rage to ridicule Buddhism as “a cult of barbarian peoples” (Doc #4). Han Yu’s position in the imperial court certainly suggests his ideas were an official state standard, though one would need additional evidence from Han Yu’s emperor’s response to Han Yu’s plea in order to know how much influence actually Han Yu held over official policy. Emperor Wu also called for Buddhism’s “eradication,” as the cause for “poisoning customs.” As Emperor, it is likely that Wu’s Edict carried a lot of weight, but it is also possible Wu was jealous of Buddhist monasteries “outshining [his own] imperial palace” than by true concern for his subjects’ welfare. A census showing causes of death would allow historians to objectively evaluate whether Buddhism truly caused citizens to “go hungry,” as Emperor Wu claimed (Doc
In Sub-Saharan Africa, the comings of Muslim Merchants from the Islamic world brought much Islamic Influence. Not only did the Arab’s trade with Africa but they also led Jihads to try to convert people to Islam. These were usually very successful because of the Muslim’s drive to die for their faith and because they either forced converts or the West African people converted easily. There was a lot of appeal in Islam for rulers because of the gaining of leadership over religion and government and regular people liked it because of the Islamic belief that everyone is equal. In China, religion was also spreading because of the trade routes. Through trade religions such as Islam, Christianity and most importantly Buddhism influenced China. Buddhism then becomes the dominant faith of the Silk Roads from 200 BCE- 700 CE. Buddhism later overshadowed Daoism and at certain points even overshadowed Confucianism, though Confucianism remained the core of Chinese government for a long time. Buddhism also spread to Japan and Korea, where it became the center of economic and cultural growth. During this time, China’s elites were becoming more and more interested in religions of all kinds which set an open path for Buddhism to impact Chinese Society the way it
The Tang dynasty is regarded as the Gold Age of Chinese history, and it is also considered as a cosmopolitan empire, which was open to various cultures and intertwined with different religions and people. However, some scholars argue that the cosmopolitan Tang empire had gone after the rebellion of An Lushan (755-763). Instead, the Tang intellectuals had growing xenophobia and were cautious with foreigners and foreign culture. However, is it a myth or reality?
This kind of thinking focused social class more than anything. Neo Confucianism partially ruled the structure of lives of the people in China.
It’s a little bit difficult to understand the cultural and political influences each of these men had on early Chinese government and society. From my understanding and what I’ve gathered from the reading. The main focus and point the Mencius is trying to make are this; In our human nature, we are naturally innocent and good. We are born good and we know what is right and what is wrong. He also had said that each of us has goodness inside of everyone, though that’s as individuals. But individuals together make up a greater portion and makes a society that should be changing what is good. Yet, the opposite is true as well. That if we as citizens don’t behave and create positive vibes, or influences others, it will cause bad morals and bad character. I think that Mencius was focused on creating a better person and from that, there will be good that
Han Yu on the other hand argued against Buddhism, he believed that it was neither Chinese nor Confucianism. Han was a writer and poet “who defended the moral values of Chinese civilizations against corruption of foreign influences, especially Buddhism” (balh 187). Some, to be a cult that eventually spread throughout China, says Buddhism. Buddha (founder of Buddhism) was described as a barbarian man who wore clothes, that was untraditional of the Chinese. He was also said to not speak the home