Benoit defines image restoration theory as strategies used to mitigate image damage following a threat to a reputation (organizational or personal) (Blosenhauer, 2014). As we know that, image is possible a very important concern nowadays. Thus, when reputation is threatened especially during crisis happens, individuals and organizations are encouraged to justify themselves to the attack. Organization works on effort to ensure that crises are anticipated, managed, and evaluated effectively and efficiency before any unfavorable impression is formed. Then, here comes a theory used as communication approach to restore the organization’s image- Image Restoration Theory. The basic concepts of Image Restoration Theory is the key to understanding …show more content…
Secondly, defeasibility, whenever a statement is found in question to be false by showing proofs or evidences. Thirdly, accident, when it comes to show that the unpleasant incident was happened accidentally and unintentionally. The accused may retreat from the responsibility of this unpleasant accident. Lastly is about good intention. The accused may claims that this offensive act was doing in the best of intention but not in any form of recklessness. All of these tactics are suggested in the second strategy of evasion of responsibility under Image Restoration Theory.
Furthermore, reduce offensiveness is the third strategy of Image Restoration Theory. Reduce the offensiveness of the act is the strategy seeking to offer an alternative perspective to the problem. There are six tactics of reduce offensiveness strategy. These are bolster (stress good traits), minimize, differentiate, transcend, attack accuser, and compensate (Kessadayurat, …show more content…
Audience’s feeling and attitude is so fundamental in bolstering one organization. Hopes of an organization in reducing the offensiveness increased whenever it tries to bolster up by the audience’s positive perception. A second possibility is to try to minimize the negative feelings associated with the wrongful act (Benoit, 1997). The organization is able to reduce the offensiveness to the lowest possible level or prevent it from increasing beyond the level if it can minimize the risk of an unpleasant situation and make it seems less significant than it really is. Third, a firm can employ differentiation, in which the act is distinguished from other similar but more offensive actions (Benoit, 1997). The issues of differentiation are referring on how the organization handle the actions and makes them look different from other similar but less desirable actions. A fourth way of reducing offensiveness is transcendence, which attempts to place the act in a more favorable context (Benoit, 1997). Transcendence allows the firm to reduce offensiveness by placing the act in the state of a better quality that go beyond usual boundaries. Fifth, those accused of wrong-doing may decide to attack their accusers (Benoit, 1997). Accused is suggested to diminishing the damage of the image by giving
DENIAL STRATEGY Jerry Sandusky Pre-Scandal: For nearly a decade preceding the eruption of the Penn State crisis, Jerry Sandusky embraced the denial strategy as his primary image restoration strategy. Sandusky sought to convince others there was no crisis, but rather misunderstood notions of his well-intentioned behavior. Despite allegations of severely inappropriate behavior, dating as far back as 1998, Sandusky avoided charges and prosecution by denying the allegations ever occurred (Thamel, 2011). ''
Retrieved April 18, 2018, from https://www.cnn.com/2013/10/28/us/penn-state-scandal-fast-facts/index.html Crandall, W., Parnell, J. A., & Spillan, J. E. (2014). Crisis management in the new strategy landscape (2nd Ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE. Retrieved April 18, 2018. O'Keefe, M. (2011).
1. What is the purpose of this book and its central thesis (philosophy or perspective)? Unmasking administrative evil is a book about the relationship between evil and public administration and other related fields. This book analyses the evil of how unjustly or needless pain and suffering or death on other human being, not seeing other human being as human.
Our thinking is affected by the way the issue is framed initially. Framework is a guide human thought and action. According to the article, in the author’s decision is not to recall the Pinto, so that Gioia suggests that his behavior is highly influences by script processing. Three ways that ethical awareness can be increased in a business context. 1.
I have a shocking confession to make. Most of my friends and family will be so disappointed in my online proclamation, but I must finally tell the truth. But before I tell you what the offensive act is, I feel that I must offer a proper defense. You see, there are extenuating circumstances to my particular crime.
Ross came up with a list of seven basic prima facie duties as they apply to individuals. These duties included a duty to (1) reparation, (2) fidelity, (3) gratitude, (4) justice, (5) beneficence, (6) self-improvement, and (7) nonmaleficence. Tom Regan’s Rights Theory stems around the idea that every person has four basic, semi-universal rights: (1) the right not to be harmed, (2) the right to aid when their rights have been violated, (3) the right to self-defense, and (4) the liberty right. In this paper I will also discuss Tom Regan’s worse off principle.
Without trust, building a stable work environment between differing parties is difficult if not impossible. However, it could be said that it does not address other glaring issues with Carr’s position that personal morality does not apply to business. First, that cultural acceptance for such behaviour, the implication that business operates in a morality-free zone, is a glaring fallacy. Secondly, Carr’s position relies on the fact that when one enters a business they put on their ‘poker face’ and leaves behind their human identity. Not only is such a thing impossible, it attributes to business autonomy that it is lacking.
Introduction According to Alford (2007), a whistleblower is one who speaks out against illegal or unethical practices in school or in the organization where he or she works. Whistle-blowing, is an essential factor for pin-pointing and eradicating unethical activities in most organization set ups (Brown, 2008). According to Sawyer, Johnson and Holub (2010), most individuals disregard the idea of whistle-blowing because they fear that they will be avoided and could end up losing their job careers and also their good names. When an individual is torn between two or more deeds and have virtuous reasons for choosing each action, this is regarded to as an ethical dilemma.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW The review of literature of this study broadly focused on whistleblowing. There have been several attempts to define whistleblowing, but certainly there is no generally accepted definition. According to Near and Miceli (1985), which are often referred by researchers, whistleblowing is a process whereby a current or former member of an organization discloses practices or activities believe to be illegal, immoral or illegitimate, to those who may be able to effect change. The practices or activities can be refer to personal misbehavior such as stealing, waste, mismanagement, safety problems, sexual harassment, unfair discrimination and legal violations (Dasgupta & Kesharwani, 2010).
Must employees will notice, criticized, or even emulated the moral failures of their leaders. If we look at our world history, it is filled with examples of how competent leaders have failed from ancient times to modern times. Periodically, we read about unethical behavior in some type of media outlet. Which often corrupts the public’s trust in the leader’s company or agency, then it brings the individual leader into question.
Does the culprit of sexual harassment express good character? Does sexual harassment in the work environment take the side of a vices or virtues? In this specific scandal, the ethical dilemma asks how these perpetrators view their behavior. Ethics of virtue is one of the foremost moral substructures to decode ethical problems like sexual harassment at work. There are a few ethical theories that relates to this specific sexual harassment scandal.
Unethical marketing and arrogance are key factors that can corrupt even companies with one of the most admired corporate culture in the world (Hartley, & Claycomb, 2013, p. 311). The definition of unethical is “not morally correct” (New Oxford American Dictionary, 2013), unethical marketing, therefore, refers to a situation in which a business values profitability more than providing customer value. When combined with arrogance, the quality of "revealing an exaggerated sense of one’s own importance or abilities” (New Oxford American Dictionary, 2013), they can bring down businesses. In this paper, I will firstly explain the relation between unethical marketing and arrogance. Then, I will analyze roles and consequences of each element according
Review of Literature Unethical behavior can tarnish a company’s image and reputation. If a company is unethical, they may have to spend additional money to improve their public image, as well as gain back as many customers as possible. The reason I have chosen to use articles that are quite a few years old and that are not so recent is because I feel that they are very good examples of what I am trying to prove in the terms of ethical behaviour within companies and these specific articles relate well to my chosen topic.