Chapter One: Irvin Yalom & his Existential model of therapy 1.1 Biographical Background Irvin D.Yalom psychiatrist, psychotherapist and bibliotherapist and a major influence in Jewish existentialism, was born in Washington D.C in 1931, the only child of Jewish parents, who left Russia shortly after World War I. His parents were not well educated and worked long hours in their grocery store, to survive financially. Their neighbourhood was poor and unsafe and so Yalom sought solace in books. His relationship was his father was close, “And Sunday mornings were mellow times, etched clearly in my mind. Usually I played chess with my father" (Yalom, 2001, p. 303) but his relationship with his mother was ambivalent, "never, not once, do I remember …show more content…
He works from an “interpersonal frame of reference” (Yalom, 2001 p. xvi) and tends to work with the terminally ill, bereaved and addiction clients. Interpersonal interaction within the group is vital to effect change and the therapist’s role is to facilitate that experience in the here and now. By members feeling a sense of belonging, hope, safety and awareness they are not alone in their issues, provides a solid foundation. Interpersonal interaction within the group enables members to release previously repressed emotions promoting healing, and the sharing of information can help educate and empower a sense of value by helping others. Members can learn coping strategies from others and interpersonal teaching can help them to develop supportive interpersonal relationships and interpersonal skills, such as empathy and tolerance. The discussion of existential factors within the group helps promote awareness and acceptance and understanding of how to live with them. (Yalom & Leszcz, …show more content…
The harsh realities of the industrial revolution created a climate of fear and anxiety about the human condition, which made many people more receptive to existential ideas. The birth of the existential movement took place following World Wars I and II and influential philosophers such as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche and Sartre, who were in conflict with the predominant ideologies of their time, were committed to exploring and understanding human experience. Existentialism has three main branches; Christian existentialism represented by Kierkegaard, Jaspers, Marcel and May; aethestic existentialism represented by Sartre, Camus and Nietzsche and Jewish existentialism represented by Buber, Yalom and Frankl. (Professor M.L.O Rourke Handout October 2016). The Humanistic version of existential therapy predominantly thrived in America, through the work of Yalom (Van Durzen,
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysShow More
The primary purpose of the practices is to help the patients to recover in the best way possible and also bond them together with the patients. The strategies, however, are also specific to certain adjustment problems. Close patient and clinical officer’s relationship can help the patients in this case to bond well and recover from their traumatic experiences. The close patient clinical officer’s relationship that involves effective communication with the patients helps to create an ambient environment for the adjustment (Grol & Grimshaw,
A power imbalance may become an issue when a therapist from a dominant culture such as able-bodied devalues a client with a non-dominant culture like a client with a terminal illness. It is essential for a therapist using CBT with terminal cancer patients to be sensitive and curious about the terminal illness or the client may end up feeling misunderstood. If the therapist is healthy, a client may assume the therapist does not understand what it is like to suffer from a terminal illness. A therapist may feel as if they have the power in the session because they are the counselor and use this power to help the client alter and reduce the negative thoughts they are experiencing. However, a therapist must be careful that they are being sensitive to the client’s emotions surrounding the terminal illness.
Chapter seven of the text explores the types of interpersonal coping strategies and how they can be used in therapy to aid in the treatment process. Firstly, this model reveals the role that the client plays in “core conflict” which is the cause of most of the client’s life issues. Consequently, the core conflict come about as a result of the clients coping style due to repetitive interactions with the people in their lives. Moreover, the client learns these coping strategies and use them in their everyday life. Even though the clients think that these coping styles are needed, these coping styles are deemed ineffective in other relationships which cause the arousal of core conflict.
The way that such intricate, specific, and divergent books and life events relate is quite showing that the choices we make do affect others and ourselves, our passions define us in positive and negative ways, and being alone in an indifferent world makes us more aware in the end. Hardship and toil prove themselves to be worth it because for Marjane, Meursault, and myself, the results of our hard work with teach us more strength and independence than before. Existentialism exists more than we can see, and its philosophy promotes learning from
Existentialism is a philosophical theory that was developed by Nietzsche and many other philosophers in the 19th century. In the first four chapters of the novel Grendel by John Gardner, the protagonist and the narrator, Grendel tells a story of his adolescence. Like any teenager, Grendel encounters multitude of events which molds him into what he is; an existentialist. Through the use of diction, personification, and simile in the narration of Grendel, John Gardner illustrates the cause of Grendel’s existential outlook.
These movements were a response to war and the unbelievable number of dead that were recorded in the time period between World War I and II. Existentialism was all about the absurdity of life and that life was a queue for death. Existentialists believed in the reality of the present and that anyone could die in the most inhumane manner, with or without hope of god awaiting them in afterlife. It was mostly just about the hope that people had of living another day. There was just death and destruction and the philosophy that became a mind-set that was based around nothingness (Aronson,
Our group topics were engaging and discussed personal matters that affected our lives. It is nice to have a sense of group cohesiveness, altruism and universality, but despite the closeness it does make one realize in the end that our problems are still ours alone. At the same time, it is good to have support and have others that resonate with your experiences and know that life is difficult and that it can be unfair (Yalom & Leszcz, 2005, p. 90). Conclusion In conclusion this semesters group therapy, has been a great learning experience to understand the therapeutic elements of the group.
Young Kwang Shin Ms. Aubrey McNary World Literature 17 September 2014 Existentialism in Kafka and Dinesen Existentialism has found its way into almost every conceivable medium of self-expression. since its inception. Literature us no exception; in fact, one could say the essence of the existentialist ethos, one of endurance when faced with the sheer absurdity of the cosmos, was never better captured than in the novels, poetry, and short stories written during the turn of the century. Yet just like the movement itself, existentialist literature embodied its philosophy with tremendous heterogeneity, the pivotal difference being one of tone. Franz Kafka 's seminal classic, 'The Metamorphosis ' is a penetrating, tragic study of Man 's imminent
In Fitzgerald’s postwar 1920s, American cultural critics and intellectuals focused in on Nietzsche’s philosophies of morality and tried to apply Nietzsche’s philosophies on modern subjectivity to modern American culture, something Fitzgerald himself addresses in The Great Gatsby. In Mailer’s postwar period, Nietzschean and Kierkegardian existentialisms remained a part of America’s mounting discourse on the applicability of existentialism to American culture, yet Mailer writes An American Dream at the moment existential psychology is substituted the traditional Freudian and Jungian approaches to psychoanalysis in America, a moment when Heideggerian philosophy and psychology flooded American discourse, a moment Mailer capture in An American Dream. Yet even though the explicit cultural moments and the precise philosophies each of these writers engage with diverge, they find frequent ground in their shared existential vision of the dilemmas of and remedies for the modern individual and the modern, “civilized”
The word existentialism and the concept we know today first came up in the twenty first century, but there are allegations prior to that date from authors like Kierkegaard and Dostoyevsky that match with the concept, even if back then was not knowingly existentialism. These two authors expressed concerns with existentialist topics such as our bound to be here and now, the concern of how we find ourselves in the world first and them find a meaning to our presence here, how this search of meaning and identity becomes a personal choice. In the case of Dostoyevsky he left pieces like The Brothers Karamazov where the author expresses thought out the reflection of its characters how we have an active role in deciding what to believe on. In the case
But it was only by the mid-20th century when existentialism became prominent right after World War II. Existentialism is known as a philosophy which emphasizes individual existence, freedom and choice. Some well-known existential
The argument Jean-Paul Sartre, a French philosopher, presents on existentialism helps to prove the foundation which is “existence precedes essence”. Existentialism is normally understood as an ideology that involves evaluating existence itself and the way humans find themselves existing currently in the world. For the phrase existence precedes essence, existence’s etymology is exsistere or to stand out while the term Essence means “being” or “to be” therefore the fundamental of existentialism, literally means to stand out comes before being. This can be taken into many different ideas such as individuals having to take responsibility for their own actions and that in Sartre’s case the individual is the sole judge of his or her own actions. According to him, “men is condemned to be free,” therefore “the destiny of man is placed within himself.”
In the perspective of the counselor, many have said that the essential focus and responsibilities for the outcome are placed on the therapist, but success in therapy also depends on the commitment of the client ( Perspectives). While there is discussion on the importance of body language with clients, it is also very important for the counselor. This makes them appear more open and friendly to the patients that may experience trouble opening up or talking about difficult issues. The specific changes and improvements which patients experience will definitely vary, but at the end of the day, therapy is about self-
Soren Kierkegaard is known as the tremendous philosopher of “Existentialism”. Kierkegaard was a major source for Existentlism during the 20th century but it would be inaccurate if we call him an Existentlism. Existentialism means an emphasis upon man creating his own nature as well as the importance of personal freedom, decision, and commitment. Kierkegaard believed in free will, the claim that some human choices are not coerced or determined either by outside forces or one’s genetic makeup.
Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) was a “Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author” (Soren Kierkegaard, n.d., n.p.). Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) was a “French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic” (Jean-Paul Sartre, n.d., n.p.). Despite living in different centuries and having different religious beliefs, they were both considered to be existentialist philosophers. In this paper, I will define existentialism, as well as, explain how Kierkegaard, a radical Christian, and Sartre, a radical atheist, can both be called existentialists.