A labor union is a group of money earners that come together to promote and defend the interests of its members with respect to earnings and working conditions. Labor unions deal with employers on the behalf of its members through a process known as collective bargaining. In the United States, the first labor unions were on a regional level, when shoemakers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, organized in the 1790s. Terrible working conditions in the 19th century led to worker conditions. Employers fought back against the strikes by issuing demands, hiring private detectives and engaging in other dispositions. Sometimes, the strikes became violent. The National Labor Relations Act was passed in 1935 to protect workers ' rights to form unions and
1. The New Deal was Roosevelt’s set of reforms to better the welfare of Americans. During this time, many Americans were relying on handouts from private charities due to the poor domestic economy. There was no government welfare system that dealt with helping out the people since the president prior to Roosevelt, Hoover, believed a welfare state was bad for America.
The 1920s represented the post-suffrage era when women made drastic social and cultural changes that affected the American women way of life. Women began to seek more rightsand equal representation through changes in social values. However, women still observed their primary responsibility for caring for the household; and also depended on men for monetary support (Martin, 1926). The essay brings into perspective, various transformations that took place in the 1920s, resulting in the diversion of the traditional norms.
Roosevelt took his power to control the way of life of the Americans. So, many concerned Americans discern these actions as a problem to their right to be free. In fact, the New Deal actions were affecting and taking the American freedom. Roosevelt practiced his power to manipulate the economy and to command people, assimilating himself as the highest authority. Therefore, people started to see Roosevelt’s campaign as the communist party, by trying to control the system.
On Saturday, June 25, 1938 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a bill that was a landmark law in the Nation’s social and economic development. This law was called the Fair Labor Act of 1938. (Grossman) This Act established minimum wage, overtime, recordkeeping, and youth employment standards affecting full-time and part time workers in the private sector and in the Federal, State, and local government. (US Department of Labor, 2008) This law is enforced by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management for employees and cover employees of Legislative Branch. (US Department of Labor, 2008) All employees of certain enterprises that workers engaged in interstate commerce, handling, selling, or working on goods that have been moved in or produced by
In their opinion, the employees were not employed in interstate commerce, so their wages had nothing to do with it either (Document F). They also thought that the government had no right to give workers the right to self-organize and break the law (Document G). The authority of the federal government expanded, and FDR was, in a sense, abusing the power he had. Roosevelt’s administration increased the role of the federal government in the economy. His New Deal programs were more successful in empowering the government than lightening the effect of the Depression.
Roosevelt's Second set of deals came much later, but were just as important. The most notable of the acts in the second wave was probably the Fair Labor Standards Act. The act established a maximum amount of working hours for any employee and a minimum wage. Many of Roosevelt's deals were meant with success, but it is important to note that some were declared unconstitutional at later dates. The AAA was one of such acts declared unconstitutional in 1936, however, it was rewritten and implanted again at a later date ("The New Deal", n.d.).
The labor unions helped so the owners could not take advantage of the workers. The discontent between the working class and big business owners was very important for the entire country, so President Theodore Roosevelt used his power as the President to pass laws fitting to the progressive era. He proposed a number of legislative measure to protect the health and welfare of the public and the environment. He helped to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. Roosevelt also intervened in coal strikes on the side of the workers to help force the owner to negotiate.
*Pullman Strike * The Pullman Strike was widespread by the United States railroad workers, approximately a quarter-million worker were on strike at the peak and it impacted the expedition the railroad system across the states. The strike between the American Railway Union and George Pullman changed the course of future strikes when President Grover Cleveland ordered federal troops to break up the strikers; its influenced how the federal government and the court system would handle labor issues. The labor issues during the Pullman Strike were not limited that of rights of the workers, the role of management in the workers private life, and the roles of government resolving labor conflicts. Pullman planned communities for his workers how he determined
This provided better working hours and safe conditions for the factory workers. People argue that the factory owners sent thugs to interrupt labor unions and government did little to protect the laborers. However, when the Antitrusts Acts were passed, it stated that nothing contained in the Antitrust Laws shall be constructed to forbid the existence and operation of labor organizations (7). This proves that the Federal Government tried to intervene and help the laborers. Sooner or later, factory workers got what they wanted with the help of the reforms during the Progressive Era.
While the programs of the First New Deal were left-wing and progressive, some liberals decided that it had not gone far enough to help the common people. When the National Industrial Recovery Act was declared unconstitutional in 1935, employers once again began treating their workers unfairly. Worker strikes were broken up violently, and they could not achieve their rights without government assistance. This problem was combatted with the Wagner Act, which gave workers the right to unionize and negotiate for better wages and working conditions. Additionally, liberals such as physician Francis Townsend and Senator Huey P. Long called for government pensions for the elderly in order to open jobs for the unemployed and simulate the economy.
It is a program that helps the common man by government regulations for business in order to level the playing field. It gave equal and fair opportunities to ensure that no sector has an unfair advantage over another (Square Deal). Although Roosevelt was seen as a “traitor to his own class,” he continued to make changes that would benefit every American citizen. Roosevelt settled the coal strike of 1902 by forcing the owners to negotiate with the unions. Instances like the coal strike of 1902 almost never receive responses that benefit the workers, however, Theodore Roosevelt had the workers’ best interest at heart.
He tried to secure economic independence for skilled trade workers by advocating for trade unionism. This restriction of union membership was significant because it resulted in more specialized reforms and demands for that specific group. Gompers success in his work in social justice for unions affected the conditions of workers through regulation acts, such as the Fair Labor Standards Act in 1938, and the Adamson Act in 1916. By creating this powerful union, Samuel Gompers contributed to the working class being treated fairly. His victories led the workers of America to an established minimum wage and fair hours, which overall improved their life quality during the hard times of
His actions were named the 1st and 2nd New Deal, in which his most immediate goal was to provide unemployed Americans with jobs to stimulate the economy with the help of government involvement. The Supreme Court of the U.S called the New Deal unconstitutional since it overexerted the power of the government. Roosevelt responded by proposing legislation to increase the size of the court to favor New Deal laws, also known as court packing (OI). This was seen as a threat to the system of checks and balances however was deemed necessary by many for the welfare of the country. Roosevelt was a much more active President than Hoover, he placed watches on banks to stop bad investments and a physical rehabilitation of the country to provide a better use of land all to prevent and stop a depression (Doc 5).
Gross national product was up 34 percent, and unemployment had dropped from 25 percent to 14 percent. But Franklin Roosevelt faced criticism for increased government spending, unbalanced budgets, and what some perceived as moving the country toward socialism. Several New Deal acts were declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court. Roosevelt retaliated by proposing to "pack" the court with justices more favorable to his reforms. Many in Congress, including some Democrats, rejected the idea.