Slavery, Jim Crow, the ghetto, and the carceral apparatus are all structural institutions that share a mutual beneficial relationship where each has supplemented and historically progressed into more advanced subtle forms of oppression and racism. Past and current regimes served as social functions with the objective of encompassing African Americans in a permanent subordinate position. In each generation, newer developments of a racial caste emerge with the same objective of repudiating African Americans citizenship. The only thing that has changed since Jim Crow is the language we use to justify racial exclusion (Alexander, 2). These four regimes are genealogically linked because they all advanced and developed from one another. As the generations progress, newer forms of social control, racial exclusion and oppressions develop. All of these regimes function as a racial caste system that locks a stigmatized racial group in …show more content…
It is, as Alexander explains, “a gateway into a larger system of racial stigmatization and permanent marginalization” (Alexander, 12). Mass incarceration is a larger system in which functions like Jim Crow laws that mesh people of color into a second class citizenship. Mass incarceration isn 't a term only applicable to the criminal justice system, but like past regimes, enables former prisoners, mainly people of color to be subject to “legalized discrimination and permanent social exclusion” (Alexander, 14). For example Operation Pipeline is an example of legalized discrimination that is a federally run general search program that targets people without cause for suspicion, mainly being people of color (Alexander, 71). This gives officers the consent to target and suspect people of color more than White individuals, even though they are just as likely to commit a drug offense or
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Professor Bazian analyzes how racism is embedded in our government. There is an entrenched resistance to integration and desecration within a large percent of the white population, especially that of the South. After the Civil War, a majority of the population refused to grant equal rights and found that through Jim Crow laws, the African American population would be detached from the general population. Because of this segregation, African Americans have seen it “transform into a structural and constant process of under-development coupled with heavy doses of violence…” (Bazian 44).
In the first chapter, “The Rebirth of Caste,” Alexander details the rise and fall of slavery and Jim Crow laws, as well as the emergence of its replacement: mass incarceration. In the era of chattel slavery in the emerging United States, the term “race” was born. By creating this social construct and deeming Africans as a lesser race and using pseudoscientific practices to falsely prove their inferiority, whites in America not only
“The punishments associated with slavery became further incorporated into the penal system” (Davis 31), which is reflected in the disproportionate rate of Blacks incarcerated. Although Davis primarily focuses on Black people, there are “other racialized histories that have affected the development of the U.S. punishment system as well--the histories of Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian-Americans” (25). Because of the war on drugs, three-strikes law, the zero-tolerance laws in schools, and other racialized laws, Black people are being arrested and funneled through the system at higher rates than any other race. The reason could be because they suffer “pervasive discrimination, disproportionate poverty, homelessness, participation in street economies, and bias and abuse by law enforcement officers a (quote),” which leads to the higher rates of incarceration. This affects transgender people of color, specifically transgender women, because they are “targeted by police harassment and violence and, consequently, often come to distrust law enforcement” (quote).
In the article, The New Jim Crow, by Michelle Alexander, she explores a subject that most people ignore; that is a racial caste system exists in America. Specifically, she asserts that mass incarceration is a new racial caste system which provides context for the political, social and economic problems, represents the New Jim Crow. In post Jim Crow society, Alexander empathizes, we have adopted to the colorblind perspective, which states that race is not being justified for discrimination or social contempt. Instead of relying on race, we use our criminal justice system to label colored people as criminals. Once we labeled them as criminals, all forms of discrimination will be legal against people of color.
The New Jim Crow, Mass incarceration, is the rebirth of the caste system in the United States. People of color, blacks in particular, are being disproportional discriminated through the criminal justice system. The Criminal Justice System is being Mass incarceration creates a cycle that never ends for people that are locked up. This cycle perpetuates racial hierarchy because most of the people are black men and being in prison ruins their
Mass incarceration is just another tool of the white men in power to suppress the lives of Black people in America, by way of the American judicial system, just like the old Jim Crow
Alexander then argues that mass incarceration is the new norm precisely resembles the racist system: Jim Crow because black males in the current society are equally as trapped as black individuals during the Jim Crow era. Black males are therefore trapped in the mass incarceration system, “competing on an unequal level towards success,” in order to keep white males on the top of our society. Alexander creates connections between the two caste systems and describing it as a “symbolic production of race,” the most important parallel. She argues that the production of race was created to stereotype black men as criminals and makes society believe so by generating propaganda, giving the government an excuse to criminalize black men more than white men, although they’re more likely to professionally sell drugs and not get criminalized for it, and making society support mass incarceration (p.
The Strange Career of Jim Crow, published in 1955 by C. Vann Woodward, actually helped to shaped a part of U.S history. It was around the same time when the Civil Rights Movement was happening in the United States and right after the Supreme Court ’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education; this book was published to expose a clear and illuminating analysis of the history of the Jim Crow Laws. The south had choices to make regarding race, and the establishment; Jim Crow was not a person but was affiliate to represent the system of government and segregation in the United States. Named after the ‘racial caste system,’ Jim Crow affected millions of americans. Woodward analyzes the impact on the segregation between the North and the South by defining an argument, “Racism was originated in the North.”
1: Drug addiction, reasons are increasing day by day. 2: However, government are trying to reduce, but it is helpless and a lot of reasons behind this poverty, poor, education, and unemployment. 3: And this drug incarceration policy should be change. 1: Prison is not giving proper guidance 2: Rehabilitation 3: Unemployment rate 1:
In 2000, U.S. agencies surpassed the $100-billion-a-day barrier in spending to incarcerate individuals with serious addiction problems. Rehabilitating and managing offenders who misuse alcohol has proven to be extraordinarily difficult. Despite traditional sanctions and ever-increasing terms of incarceration, addiction drives many of these offenders to continue committing crimes, resulting in a revolving door. Alcohol- and drug-involved offenders are overwhelming the criminal justice system, creating unwieldy court dockets, burdensome caseloads, and overcrowded jails and prisons. Yet, programs and sanctions have had little impact on the rate of alcohol-involved crime.
The United States has a larger percent of its population incarcerated than any other country. America is responsible for a quarter of the world’s inmates, and its incarceration rate is growing exponentially. The expense generated by these overcrowded prisons cost the country a substantial amount of money every year. While people are incarcerated for several reasons, the country’s prisons are focused on punishment rather than reform, and the result is a misguided system that fails to rehabilitate criminals or discourage crime. This literature review will discuss the ineffectiveness of the United States’ criminal justice system and how mass incarceration of non-violent offenders, racial profiling, and a high rate of recidivism has become a problem.
I am interested in mass incarceration due to the fact the USA is a leading county of mass imprisonment. In my opinion, the most important social fact of mass imprisonment is the inequality in penal confinement. This inequality produces tremendous social problem in the USA with extraordinary mass imprisonment rates among racial minorities with no more than a high school education.
In America currently there are about 2.3 million people that are incarcerated. The U.S. accounts for only 5 percent of the entire world’s population yet it holds around 25 percent of those people as the world’s prisoners. That is an astonishing number. Crime rates have grown over the years and don’t seem to be slowing down very much. This alone is a big cause to the debt in America as money gets poured into these prisons in order to maintain them; it is a nightmare.
Being involved in the criminal justice system conveys a negative social status. In these communities, even though the experience of incarceration is widespread, it is still stigmatizing, and incarceration is not discussed openly. Residents noted that the label “offender” becomes a master status and affects the lives of ex-offenders in many ways. For instance, ex-offenders find it difficult to get good jobs and housing.
(A) Pedagogical Systems which strictly demand that in exchange for implantations within its student bodies and aptitudes that conduce to proliferative (production) that they exhibit a generalized docility and obedience. In my first reading of Michel Foucault’s book Discipline and Punishment, I looked at the penal system specifically the prison system as the beginning of the development of the disciplinary society. But through looking at the other works of Foucault and after reassessing Discipline and Punishment I realized it was not that the prison system was the start of a disciplinary society rather it brings to question why the transition of prison systems in the late 18th century and in the beginning of the 19th century; a transition from