Founded in 1883 by James C. Hawthorne, the Oregon State Hospital previously referred to as The Oregon State Insane Asylum has contributed to the success of present day society’s perception of mental health. Legislature passed an act in 1880, which allowed the Oregon state government to run a psychiatric facility (Mental Health Ass). The late 1800’s placed individuals determined to be a burden to society within the hospital to receive treatment. Mental health is currently accepted within American society and viewed as a disease rather than a mental disturbance and danger to civilization. Previous to 1913 the facility was utilized purely for the detainment of those deemed mentally insane rather than for state of the art treatment and rehabilitation
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In the 1800s, the mentally ill and prisoners were forced to live in wretched conditions and often were not even treated as regular citizens. Patients of mental institutions were operated on so they were more controllable. The mentally insane that did not live at home were kept in prisons, few were in faulty poorhouses, and even fewer were in hospitals. Many hospitals had mental wards, but they were inadequate for patients. In the 1840s, Dorothea Dix visited many prisons where the deranged were kept and found that these conditions were unsuitable for living quarters (“Dorothea Dix Biography”).
False Imprisonment of Sane One big flaw in the system for the insertions was determining if a person was really insane or not. They did not have the technology and the knowledge to really figure that out yet. Due to this many people that were completely sane were sentenced to these institutions. One huge example of this inability to sort sane from insane was Nellie Bly. Nellie Bly was a reporter at the time that snuck into an asylum in order to uncover the truths.
The Trans-Allegheny Lunatic Asylum is a large part of history in West Virginia. It is also a more popular tourist attraction and has been on a few supernatural television show. The asylum has so much crazy and a like fighting history. The asylum has so many opportunities to venture around the building and if you are lucky you can experience supernatural activity for yourself. The can take day tour that last an hour and a half or you can spend a night in the building.
Treatment at the asylum seemed stagnant, as, “about 65% of patients discharged would later return, proving that while treatments were getting deeper into the heart of mental illness, many advancements were needed” (Insanity). Another large issue with treatment was it lacked conclusive results and as a consequence, “ efforts were made to prevent mental illness from becoming chronic, despite only four patients being released from 1878-1910” (Insanity).
In 1920, Major General Jennings wrote to the Secretary of Bombay that the “daily average sick was 580 as compared with 614 in the previous years. ”8 In addition, he reported that “the chief causes of deaths at the several Mental Hospitals were Tuberculosis 17, Diarrhea 14, Anemia 9, Diseases of the Heart 13, Dysentery 10, and Pneumonia 11.”8 These records reveal important information about the conditions of mental asylums. First, Major General Jennings word choice implies that the term lunatic asylums has been changed to “Mental Hospitals. ”8
In today’s society, when someone mentions a mental institution most people picture a dark, dirty, and horrendous hospital like structure. While this image may at times be accurate, this was not always the case. Mental institutions, otherwise known as asylums, have a past full of ups and downs. During different time periods standards for care in these facilities fluctuated from proper care to improper care. With more of an understanding of these mental abnormalities we have a better chance of finding solutions and resolving them.
When stepping inside a hospital to receive help, one should expect care, treatment, and respect. However, shown in One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest and “Howl,” American society equates mental illness with inhumanity. In both texts, the characters are forced to live without basic human freedoms and a voice to change it. Society pressures the mentally ill into becoming submissive counterparts of the community by stripping away their physical freedoms, forcing inhumane treatment, and depriving them the freedom of expression. By pressuring confinement and treating the patients inhumanely, society strips away their freedom to express themselves.
The insane are known to have been cursed with unclean spirits ever since the beginning of America who takes its views from the Old World. It was only during the Second Great Awakening that people, Christian activists and often women, sought to reform the prisons and asylums. For Americans, asylums are now remnants of the past; the mentally ill are now bestowed the right to live normal lives and they are now even given the choice to decide if they wish to seek help and take medication. Even so, it is undeniable that people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are unwillingly trapped inside a mind often not their own. Some of them, if left alone and uncared for, face dangers in society.
Introduction Prior to the mid-1960 virtually all mental health treatment was provided on an inpatient basis in hospitals and institutions. The Community Mental Health Act of 1963 was established with its primary focus on deinstitutionalizing mentally ill patients, and shutting down asylums in favor of community mental health centers. It was a major policy shift in mental health treatment that allowed patients to go home and live independently while receiving treatment, (Pollack & Feldman, 2003). As a result of the Act, there was a shift of mentally ill persons in custodial care in state institutions to an increase of the mentally ill receiving prosecutions in criminal courts.
In the book Girl, Interrupted, by Susanna Kaysen, one of the biggest focal points is mental illness. Mental illness can be tough to talk about, simply because the phrase “mental illness” encompasses such a wide range of conditions and conjures up images of deranged people, but it is very important, especially in this book. There is a certain stigma that people who are put into mental hospitals because they have medical problems or are insane and a possible danger to society. While this is sometimes true, it is far more common for patients to need help for a disorder, but just don’t know where to go or what to do, and can end up putting themselves or someone else in danger.
When people hear the words, “mental illness,” they think of insane asylums and psychiatric wards, but that’s not necessarily the case. Yes, back in the 1800’s they did have asylums for people with mental disorders. But that was when doctors didn’t fully understand mental illnesses and disorders. But currently, doctors are able to comprehend illnesses and disorders.
In the book “One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest” Ken Kesey shows that the “insanity” of the patients is really just normal insecurities and their label as insane by society is immoral. This appears in the book concerning Billy Bibbits problem with his mom, Harding's problems with his wife, and that the patients are in the ward
Occupational Therapy began to emerge in the 1700s, during the “Age of Enlightment”. It was during this period that revolutionary ideas were evolving regarding the “infirmed” and mentally ill. At that time in history, the mentally ill were treated like prisoners; locked up and considered to be a danger to society. It wasn’t until two gentlemen; Phillipe Pinel and William Tuke started to challenge society’s belief about the mentally ill, that a new understanding, philosophy, and treatment would emerge. Phillipe Pinel began what was then called “Moral Treatment and Occupation”, as an approach to treating mental illness, in 1973.
John Goodman, in his article, “How Government Regulations Is Undermining Mental Health Care”, discusses how the business of medical care is twisted and how the government, in imposing regulations on mental health care, is creating a situation where the medical care providers lose interest in actually addressing the needs of the mentally ill. Goodman mentions a previous publishing of his which touches on the issue in medical care of how health plans are manufactured to draw in the healthy and turn away the ill; the ones who are actually suffering and actually need medical treatment. He provides statistics from medical journals that detail the twenty million Americans suffering with substance abuse and the forty two point five million adults living with a mental illness who are all not getting the proper care they require. Another point Goodman makes is that while treatment options are provided in brochures and such, many people seeking legitimate treatment will find that those options are inaccessible to them for a variety of reasons with the main source of those reasons being the government regulations placed on medical care. Government regulations on medicines and other medical care can be beneficial in some situations, but in others, it can prove disadvantageous to
Even of the patients are mentally disable and some cant express clearly, they still manage to form a strong social bond with the regular people. During the 1970’s President Kennedy passed a health reform act in which psychiatry was reevaluated, and insane asylums were shutting down. The given number 160,000 was lowest at the time as more asylums designed to isolate patients were converting to a therapeutic haling centers