In a trophic system that is stable, most organisms are equally thriving, without any extreme stress or pressure to cause drastic population reduction as well as without limitless resources to allow unrestricted growth. A disturbance in the stability of a trophic system, or food web, could trigger a chain of reactions in which most, or sometimes all, of the trophic levels are affected. Some populations benefit from alterations in the system, but others suffer huge declines in numbers. Regarding consumer-driven effects, a change in consumer populations is often a product of immigration/emigration, development of prey adaptations against predators, as well as other biotic and abiotic factors, such as introduction of new species and weather (Evans 2011). In the case of an increase of a higher-leveled consumer, the trophic level directly below experiences intensified predation and rapid deterioration. The overpopulation of one species serves as an overwhelming pressure on other species that are either directly competing for resources or that serve as prey. In our experiment, we explore
Directional selection means that natural selection is in favor of one extreme or another. An example of directional selection is that there is a green and red types of beetles. The predator in the area only likes green ones, this is a disadvantage for the green beetles. Another example, there are white rats and black rats. The predator, which is an eagle, the rats hide in mud; The eagle is able to see the white rats and eats them, that is an advantage to brown rats. Disruptive selection means that natural selection is in favor of the average general individual in a group of organisms. An example of disruptive selection can be where there are white and black rabbits. Their offspring are grey, in the area where they live there are white and black rocks which they use to hide from their predators, this only benefits white and black rabbits. However, grey rabbits will have a greater chance to get eaten. Another example can be that in a community of giraffes there is a tall tree where their food supply is. Long and medium neck giraffes will be able to get the food, but small neck giraffes are not going to be able to eat. Stabilizing selection means when genetic variation decreases as the population “equalizes” on a particular characteristic. An example for this selection is that there is a community of squirrels, they have to pass into trees and branches to get food. Big
One example of evolution through the process of natural selection is that of the Viceroy butterfly. The Viceroy butterflies were facing extinction a little more than 100 years ago due to their inability to protect themselves or hide from their predators; mainly birds. Fortunately, the Viceroy population has increased significantly primarily due to mimicry [Viceroy
The Golden Cheeked Warbler is an attractive songbird that is unfortunatly endangered. The bird is most often called the Golden Cheeked Warbler, or the Gold Finch of Texas. It is scientifically refered to as the Setophaga Chrysoparia or Dendroica Chrysoparia. It is part of the Animalia kingdom, the Chordata phylum, the Aves class, the Passeriformes order, the Parulidae or Wood Warbler family, and the Setophaga genus.
In general, all the predators and prey (regardless of habitat) began with the same amount of population. For instance, there are a total of six predators (2 had forks, 2 had spoons, and 2 had knives)—regardless of habitat, Meaning each predator contributed to 33% of the population (Tables 1A, 2A). For prey, each bean contributed 25% of the population (Tables 1B, 2B). However, as generation progressed, differences began to appear.
Natural Selection is the ability to survive and reproduce in a given environment. It is known due to evolution that has occurred over time and how mutation, migration, and genetic drift have changed. There is a variation in traits in animals, for example some birds have bigger beaks that can be used to feed on worms and bugs that are way underneath the river and lakes. Also there is a differential reproduction that occurs because not all animals can reproduce the same amount and there is a limit that the environment can support over time. Some bugs due to their color can be an easy target for birds to eat and makes it harder for them to keep reproducing the same trait. In natural selection there is also heredity
When fleeing from a predator, animals forfeit the ability to acquire additional resources and reduce their risk of predation (Frid & Dill, 2002). The avoidance of predation and the need to acquire resources to survive creates a tradeoff that animals must balance in order to survive. Flight initiation distance (FID) can be used to determine how animals perceive the risk of predation in their habitat (Stankowich & Blumstein, 2005). Although FID has been used to identify predatory risk assessments in birds, mammals and lizards, it has not yet been used to evaluate risk assessments in urban dwelling pond turtles. Red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta) flee from a basking site into an aqueous environment when approached by a natural predator and forgo additional time basking in the sun. In
The effects of where these larvae are laid can dictate the fate of these gall fly larvae. A study shows that avian predators can assess a gall 's content prior to pecking it open, preferring galls that are inhabited by gall fly larvae. Bird predation was found to be concentrated near the places with a lot of tree cover where S. gigantean a large centipede tends to pray few attacks occurred in the open where golden rods are prevalent. The study was a field experiment to observe the preference of avian predators on galls in different habitat types and that had different sizes, and heights of galls. It is possible that birds have either learned through experience or evolved through natural selection to choose the more profitable galls (Poff et al. 2002). This shows that the survival rates of the gall is not just dependent on the size but also on the distribution of the galls in different habitats. This can demonstrate a reason to why the means may have been closely related.
In this experiment the researchers were investigating the limited range of the crayfish species Orconectes saxatilis in the upper part of the Kiamichi River. The dispersal of the crayfish species O. saxatilis and two sympatric crayfish species throughout the upper part of the Kiamichi River were examined. The type of habitat that the crayfish favor for use was also examined along with their historical characteristics. Crayfish species with small habitats are in major need of conservation but little information is known about species-specific habitats. The question that the researchers were asking in this experiment was what are the primary factors that limit the distribution of the species O. saxatilis in the Kiamichi River.
“In the animal kingdom, the rule is, eat or be eaten,..” Stated by Thomas Szasz. The animals live in a way where if they are not on the top of the food chain, they live in fear and worry that they may be eaten. In the article Dread is vanishing from the animal world. Here’s why that's a bad thing, by Sarah Kaplan, she explains how we as humans are leading top predators to go extinct or come close to. Sarah states, “the largest predators are dying out and no longer a threat smaller animals feel more secure and nature is thrown off balance,” The small animals live in fear, so when they go out for food, they don’t look long because they are always on the lookout for predators. When the smaller animals realize there is no danger, they eat more,
The social behaviors that occurred and the researchers observed and recorded were, group resting, synchronized breathing, group feeding, and a strong preference towards shaded areas.
Brad and Mary discuss the discovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Brad says his team and himself have found proof that the bird is in fact still alive. Mary does not believe that Brad should risk publishing the discovery to the world without great evidence. Including a list of Brad’s arguments and Mary’s responses:
The purpose of this study is to observe the particular animals territorial behavior by examining through various experiments performed on the field. The animal that I chose for the ethology paper is the song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Song sparrows are found throughout most of North America and in the Midwestern United States. They live in areas of open habitats, edges of wetlands, fields, shrubs, trees, near ponds and they are also found near human habitations. The song sparrows that are found near the human habitats do not sense danger as they are used to humans but if humans go near them, some of them would change their songs/sounds. Human disturbance can have morphological or physiological effects on wildlife
I want to start out by saying I have seen this movie several times and it happens to be one of my favorites! Dr. Temple Grandin has opened so many doors not only in the Cattle industry but for people with Disabilities as well! She used her autism as a way to see and feel what the cattle see and feel so she could then design a system to make the butchering process less stressful on the animal. “Cattle are prey animals and my autism allows me to understand prey animals well. I can visualize the flight zones of cattle.” I believe that this quote, this fact was the key to Dr. Grandin’s success!
How differrent about two kind of large tropical shark,the whale shark and the tiger shark? First of all, the whale shark is light blue and has dots on its body whereas the tiger shark is dark blue and has a stripe pattern on its body. The whale shark has legth 10 metres and weight 9 tonnes whereas the tiger shark has length 4 metres and weight 500 kilograms. So,the whale shark is bigger and heavier than the tiger shark.