According to definition, reinvention is to invent again, remodel, or revive something that already exists. Between the 16th and 19th centuries Americans has embraced the idea of reinvention through their determination to change the religion and government of their time. Since the development of the American Colonies, Americans, or in this case colonist, embraced the character of reinvention and applied it to religion. They took the ideas from Martin Luther’s 1517 Protestant Reformation to shape the landscape which they lived in. Protestants and Catholics were constantly trying to reinvent to common social norms that were already in placed in order to please their denomination. In the 1630s the Puritans, led by John Winthrop, settled in Boston with hopes of reforming the Church of England and emplacing their religion and its social values with of those who are already there (primarily Native Americans). Around twelve years later some Puritans, such as Roger Williams, Anne Hutchinson, and Thomas Hooker, tried to reinvent the morals and theology of the Puritan Community. Years later in the 1730s and 1740s there is a revival called the Great Awakening which focused on reinventing the way people conducted their life and a call for personal choice. …show more content…
This awakening promised access to salvation through a person’s actions and declared the truth of personal salvation. The reformers of the era called for a recreation of the protestant faith something that had been set in place for over hundreds of years. Through this awakening church leaders wanted to reinvent the Christian faith and broke into groups such as the Mormons, Millerites, and the Shakers. This era proved the American characteristic of reinvention through the recreation of the Christian faith to the denominations likings, much similar to the
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The Second Great Awakening and the Transcendentalism is a book written by Barry Hankins in 2014. The main idea that the book reflects is that the Second Great Awakening and the Transcendentalism reinforced Americans beliefs in the individual’s importance and support even as it helped to bring a sense of community to a highly nomadic masses. The Second Great Awakening movement transformed the American religion and society in a number of ways. While there was a large growth of the deism in New England. Church’s revolutionary fervor tended to alienate it from its constituency.
Religion was very important to the Puritans in the 1600s. John Winthrop a member of the Puritans gentry, wrote to his wife the ‘I am verily persuaded God will bring some heavy affliction upon this land.” A year later he went and lead a group of a group of puritans to New England. By the 1630s another twenty thousand Puritans would come to America. When John became governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, he told immigrants that will have to guide people toward this holy ideal or they were not welcomed.
After the War of 1812 up to and past the death of Zachary Taylor in 1850, the United States was undergoing a period of cultural, governmental and social reform in which citizens were pushing for more democracy, freedoms, and rights for various groups of people. This time was called The Second Great Awakening that changed citizens’ views on religion, morals, rights and even life values, all of which were main drives for reform in areas such as women’s rights and voting, the issue of slavery, and government facilities such as
In the year of 1630, a group of people known as the Puritans arrived to America and settled in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in Boston. The Puritans were similar to the Pilgrims in which they were Protestants from England who thought that their reforms of their church were “too Catholic” and needed to be changed further. The Puritans being unhappy with their reforms was the primary reason for leaving England and settling in America, while the Pilgrims stayed behind and were determined to change their reforms. When they came to America, they decided to keep some of their strict rules. For example, church was mandatory and if someone missed a day,
During the 1730s and 1740s the Great Awakening was a religious revival that lead by the Protestants. The main idea of the revivals was to preach a new idea of being reborn which meant that one must except Jesus Christ as their lord and savior. Once that occurred the people in return they will be forever saved and be forgiven for the sins they have committed in the past and the ones they will commit in the future. The text the Itinerants Chapter 2 from the Great Awakening PDF is a great text to read for information on the Great Awakening. The text shows how people like George Whitefield and others like him reshaped the landscape of the religious world.
Theodore W. Anderson merged other denominational churches into the ECC in the post-WWII era, which greatly expanded the cultural diversity of the church during the 1960s. This shift away from “isolation’ provided a more dynamic and integrated evangelical community in the ECC for Americans of all differing ethnic backgrounds. This form of foundation dispensational ideology marked a major transition in the Church during the mid-20th century. This new trends in the merger of differing denominational backgrounds into the ECC provided platform for greater racial diversity in the evangelical style of Lutheranism in the late 20th century. In the 1970s and 1980s, the growth of women’s conferences and the inclusion of African-Americans and Hispanic believers into the ECC provided an important and positive development that shifted away from the primarily Swedish ethnic foundations of the church.
Puritanism was a movement that arose towards the end of the 16th century. It was a direct result of the split of the Catholic Church. The Anglicans became the dominant Protestant religion in England and disapproved of the Puritan beliefs. To escape the religious persecution that followed, they escaped to the New World. (Religion of the American Republic) Puritans saw God as an omniscient and omnipotent being.
The American Enlightenment and the Great Awakening were two very important motivators that changed the colonial society in America through religious beliefs, educational values, and the right to live one’s life according to each individual’s preference. The Great Awakening and the American Enlightenment movements were two events in history that signaled a grand distinction to the teachings among religious believers. New beliefs of how a person should worship in order to be considered in “God’s good graces” soon became an enormous discussion among colonists across the land. “Men of the cloth,” such as George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards were well respected and closely followed when preaching about the love of God and damnation.
The First Great Awakening was brought over to America from Europe in the early 1700’s, which brought Pietism, Enlightenment and Protestant faith. The Protestant faith was established in the United States during the colonial era with the first Great Awakening and grew after the War of 1812. Men were mostly of the hierarchy till the roles of the women transitioned through the war. A while later, the Second Great Awakening increased the churches to a lucrative Christian society in which preached spiritual equality and could democratically govern themselves within a hierarchy (Henretta). During the Second Great Awakening there was a substantial amount of importance for religious women in the church as they searched for a social, political and cultural
The quote “The writers, I do believe, who get the best and most lasting response from their readers are the writers who offer a happy ending through moral development. By a happy ending, I do not mean mere fortunate events--a marriage or a last minute rescue from death--but some kind of spiritual reassessment or moral reconciliation, even with the self, even at death” by British novelist Fay Weldon relates to the ending of The Awakening in how Edna’s final views and thoughts of herself and her life have evolved throughout the novel. Edna undergoes a significant change in attitude, behavior, and overall character. Edna’s rebellion against societal norms seems to be more intrinsically motivated rather than by extrinsic forces. Throughout the course of the novel, Edna struggles with her inner thoughts, feelings, and becoming her true self rather than just living the expected lifestyle of a typical upper class housewife.
The decline of Calvinism during the First Great Awakening yielded a more individualistic view of salvation and religion as a whole, inevitably resulting in new interpretations of Puritanism. Before the First Great Awakening began, the Massachusetts Bay Colony experienced a decline in religion between 1700 and 1725. The colonists viewed the ministers as too formal and lacking religion of the heart. However, beginning around the 1730s, the revival brought a new style of emotional, oratory preaching, which argued that everyone was damned unless he/she repented. This introduced the question “what can I do to be saved?”
“Independence, free will, and personal effort are considered primary virtues that contribute not only to personal achievement but also to the success and well-being of the nation.” This quote, stated by Charles Finney, means that people must be able to choose for themselves and make their own decisions in order for the country to become better than it is. The Second Great Awakening began for several different reasons, consisted of many different church revivals and leaders, and ultimately had a lasting impact for several more years after the end of the Second Great Awakening. There were several different factors that led up to the Second Great Awakening. Some such factors are listed by Richard Kaplan in his article titled, The Second Great
The Second Great Awakening, beginning in about 1790, influenced a reform movement that encouraged mandatory, free, public education. In 1805, the New York Public School Society was created by wealthy businessmen and was intended to provide education for poor children. In 1817, a town meeting in Boston, Massachusetts called for establishment of free public primary schools. Many wage earners opposed this proposal. Josiah Quincy, mayor of Boston, supported the idea that education should be a priority by saying, “(By) 1820, an English classical school is established, having for its object to enable the mercantile and mechanical classes to obtain an education adapted for those children whom their parents wished to qualify for active life, and thus
They weren’t particularly in joy of the Anglican beliefs and customs. Winthrop’s sermon helps reiterate the puritan’s ideology and at the same time give guidelines on how to make a successful society and provides them with reason on why they have to succeed. They were an outcast in England and if their society here in the New World failed too then they as a group have failed. They have failed to show why their way is right and also they have failed god.
Puritans were Christians who had to follow their lives according to the bible. In Winthrop’s speech, he informs the people that God is with them, but like England if they failed to create a godly society than they will face the “wrath of god.” Winthrop’s focus in this speech is to urge people to be caring, loving, and selfless for the sake of the godly mission; So they can truly succeed. He also wants to have equality among everyone in terms of wealth to create natural community of faith so that religious believes are not forced upon anyone. Winthrop continuously tells people to become caring, loving, and selfless, instead of saying that they already are all those things.