Professor Jessica Lourey
15 September 2015
A People’s History of the United States; 1492 – 2000: “Drawing the Color Line” Howard Zinn makes a considerable case that racism is a learned behavior not a natural reaction in Peoples History of the United States; 1492 – 2000” by Howard Zinn.
As stated by Zinn in “A P; 1492 – 2000, “There is an enormous difference between a feeling of racial strangeness and, perhaps fear, and the enslavement of millions of black people that took place in America.” (Zinn 32) There were many circumstances that led America toward slavery and in turn racism. The Africans were treated as dirt. There were many instances where people were shown by example and word that the …show more content…
It made it easier for the slave traders to treat the Africans as they believed they were, dirty and loathsome. It didn’t matter how kind they were, how organized, or skilled. By just looking at the Africans, the slave traders had determined, they were unworthy of humane treatment. The Africans were taken from their tribes in Africa, chained like dogs, and made to walk up to 1000 miles. They were led to the coast where they waited in cages. As Zinn noted, “John Barbot had written, The ship’s surgeons examine every part, of every one of them… Men and women being stark naked…Such as are allowed good and sound are set on one side…marked on the breast with a red-hot iron, imprinting the mark of the French, English, or Dutch…they awaited shipment 10-15 days” (Zinn 28) After the abuse they had suffered, they were put into the slave quarters on the ships. The size of the slave quarters varied, however they were always packed and foul, with the smell of human waste. The Africans were removed from everything they had ever known, any comfort and knowledge they had about their world, was now useless. Many times slaves would often jump over-board to stop the suffering. When they arrived in America, they were marched off the ships to the slave blocks, examined again, and sold to the highest …show more content…
When both black and white were faced with the same “offense”, the courts would continually give lighter sentences to the whites. In 1640, 6 servants ran away, 4 black and 2 white. The Negro slave, Emanuel received 30 lashes with the whip and, the letter R was burned into his cheek. He was also forced to work for a year in shackles. More if his master deemed it necessary. The white slaves simply had their indentured servant contract lengthened. At another time, during the same year, 3 slaves ran away 2 white and 1 black. When they were caught the white slaves again had their contracts extended. The Negro slave was forced to work for his master, the rest of his natural life. In 1654 a Negro woman had a baby with Robert Sweat, a white man. She was given whippings at the whipping post. The white man was made to go to the church to do his penance. He was not whipped as she had
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Introduction In Ronald Takaki’s book, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America, Takaki argues that despite the first slave codes emerged in the 1660’s, de facto slavery had already existed and provides evidence to support this claim. While he provides a range of data, these facts can be categorized in three groups: racial, economic, and historical. These groups served as precursors to what eventually led to slavery codes to be enacted and the beginning of one of the darkest chapters in American History. Racial
Many colored individuals were forced into slavery and each and everyone of the slaves had a different experience with their master. The slaves were treated as if they were nothing, a piece of property that the white people owned. They were not allowed to learn how to read or write; only needed to know how to do their chores and understand what their master was saying. They were just an extra hand in the house that had no say or existed in the white people world. The slaves’ job was to obey their master or mistress at all times, do their chores and take the beating if given one.
The Slave Ship was written by Marcus Rediker and it expresses several accounts of the Atlantic slave trade in addition to the world of the middle passage. The author discusses the nature of the slave ship and the African paths to the middle passage. Rediker also mentions the lives of historical figures (Olaudah Equiano, James Field Stanfield, and John Newton) and the roles that they had during the Atlantic slave trade. For the African captives, the sailors, and captains, the slave ship was seen as a wooden, floating, traveling dungeon and a place of terror, survival, and profit, which are the overall main themes of the book. The author’s thesis and primary purpose was to reconstruct the horrors and tragedy of the Atlantic slave trade along
Slaves played a huge role in the early American colonies because “communities were designed around slavery”. Slaves were commonly seen and worked throughout all colonies but were heavily used in the South. The Southern slaves were “forced to work under harsh conditions for long hours”. The majority of the men worked on plantations doing manual labor and the often times women were house servants. Their punishments could included being beaten, starved, tortured and or killed.
In Africa, men, women, and children were being kidnapped and sold. Once abducted from their home, Europeans would make their way back to the port to transport the slaves to the New World. Most of the time salves never knew where they would end up. Before Africans would be transported, each slave would be branded on the chest and this was a way to claim a slave for when they tried to escape (Hylton). Once boarded on a ship
During the time of the Progressive Era in 1900s-1920s, the majority of the American believed that the industrialization, immigration, and the urbanization had produced critical social disorders and believes that reforms were needed to be reshaped America. They also believed that it was time to eliminate the problem caused by the corruption in the government and promote the improvement in order to address the social and economic problems. People like Theodore Roosevelt and W.E.B.Du Bois also accepted that change was needed to improve and develop. The major changes were made in social, economic and political reforms. But, was the Progressive Era a success?
According to the documentary “Terrible Transformation” and the textbook, foundation of slavery was based on race. When Benny started to learn trade, his teacher or his classmates liked him and they got along; however, as soon as they realized that he is “nigger” suddenly they refused to be friends with him (P.151). This event precisely shows the prejudice against Black people was deeply rooted in the minds of white people whether American or European. After discovering a person has a Black ancestry no matter how much they liked that person, the Black person should be excluded. Also, it shows white people saw their race as superior that comes with privilege, while Black as the inferior race was not subjected to those privileges.
In 1607, the first wave of colonial settlers arrived in Virginia and began to establish Jamestown. Many of the new settlers came from wealthy families never performing a day of manual labor. With agricultural farming, being the revenue source of the new colonial settlers there would soon be a great demand for labor. Contracts of indentures were expiring and with much devastation in England, there was a shortage of English servants.
African Americans face a struggle with racism which has been present in our country before the Civil War began in 1861. America still faces racism today however, around the 1920’s the daily life of an African American slowly began to improve. Thus, this time period was known by many, as the “Negro Fad” (O’Neill). The quality of life and freedom of African Americans that lived in the United States was constantly evolving and never completely considered ‘equal’. From being enslaved, to fighting for their freedom, African Americans were greatly changing the status quo and beginning to make their mark in the United States.
Slavery was different for America then it was for the rest of the world. For the rest of the world, it wasn’t a race thing they just enslaved the people that they had conquered. They did not care what the color of their skin was it was just about the need for labor. In the article “New of New World Slavery” it explains how slavery was different in America than in Europe. “Slavery in the classical and the early medieval worlds was not based on racial distinctions”.
When one hears about The United States of America, one automatically thinks of the idea that has been instilled into our brains, the idea that America was founded and continues to be based on freedom and equality for all, a belief that once anyone immigrated to America, he or she will be welcomed with arms open and will become a member of the “melting pot.” However, what is the truth behind this expectation? Various events and experiences have proved otherwise. In the article titled “Causes of Prejudice”, written by Vincent N. Parrillo, a sociology professor at William Paterson University, he explains the various causes that are correlated with the result of prejudice especially in America. These theories can be used to try and understand racism in America and the interview done by Studs Terkel, a renown oral historian, of C.P. Ellis a former member of the Ku Klux Klan.
A big part of our history is the challenges different races had to face when fighting for their rights. There are groups in today’s society that are still battling oppression, even though they were granted rights by our government. It seems like when one door opens, another closes right in their face. One race that had to deal with oppression, and is still dealing with it today, is African Americans. Africans Americans were brought over to the United States to be slaves for Caucasian people.
Labor systems have been the foundation for civilizations since the beginning of time. Who did what and how they benefited each other, in other words, specialization of labor, came to be a defining factor in whether a society was truly a civilization or not. Most great civilizations were founded on agricultural labor systems, and societies with no systematic format on their workforce were seldom able to take the main stage in world history. Between 1450 and 1750, the Americas began to mark their place in the world, proving they were just as relevant as Europe, Africa, or Asia. The labor systems established during 1450-1750 were key factors in how they were able to do so.
Jordan Guice US History I Jennifer Egas 18 February 2018 Strange New Land Book Review Wood, Peter H. Strange new land--Africans in Colonial America, 1526-1776 / Peter H. Wood. Oxford University Press, 1995.