Socrates, in trying to counter Euthyphro’s idea he opines that since the gods disagree, they must have different concepts of what is ethical and what is not. Socrates clearly states, in support of this opinion that that according to Euthyphro’s account,
Good vs. God – Euthyphro’s Dilemma Amber Qi 齐靖琮 2016080415 美619 ABSTRACT Is there an objective goodness, or does god dictate the meaning of goodness? Impiety and corrupting the youth are the two accusations that directly led Socrates to his death. But what is “impiety” and is Socrates guilty of it? Demonstrated in “Euthyphro”, by Plato, before Socrates’s trial, Socrates and Euthyphro engage in a conversation about the definition of “piety” and attempts to uncover the nature of being good and its relationship to the existence of god. Socrates examines Euthyphro’s opinion of being “pious” and challenges Euthyphro to elaborate on his definition, and eventually, confuse and contradict himself.
Socrates’ method is not to tell him that he is mistaken in claiming to be an expert on religious matters, but rather to show him through questioning. Just by asking him, what is a definition of holiness, Socrates shows Euthyphro that he has no understanding at all. I like how Socrates used this method to falsify Euthyphro’s
Socrates is treating Euthyphro as the teacher, when in fact Socrates is teaching Euthyphro. It seems like Euthyphro is not thinking along the right line at all. Let’s take into account the Divine command theory, which says that the moral action is the one of God says is moral and if God prohibits it then it’s not moral. This theory is widely held to be refuted by Euthyphro argument. Euthyphro, the argument, gives two alternatives to the divine command theory that either morally good acts are willed by God because they are morally good, or morally good acts are morally good because they are willed by God.
And yet again, Socrates is able to react to this quote by causing Euthyphro to question his statement by replying, “And to give correctly is to give them what they need from [e] us, for it would not be skillful to bring gifts to anyone that are in no way needed.” (p.19). Through this reiteration of Euthyphro’s statement regarding gifting the gods, Socrates is able subtly hinting that a true, “good” entity should not require to be gifted from a being of a lower status and instead should help others as it is in their “good” nature. For God wants to help humans for the sake of working
Euthyphro, on the other hand, was prosecuting his father for a murder case. Socrates was, therefore, concerned with the level of belief that Euthyphro had in himself, regarding holiness, to the extent of prosecuting his own father. During their conversation, Euthyphro comes up with several definitions of piety. To begin with, it is important to consider a few points regarding the causal and semantic because-statements. Causal statements are
According to the teachings of Socrates, “one must never intentionally inflict wrong on another, even when one has been wronged oneself.” In stating this, Socrates is validating the belief that “two wrongs don’t make a right.” In essence, Socrates believed that one cannot cure one evil by committing another, because in doing so the person is just hurting themselves. According to Crito however, it is acceptable to willingly do wrong depending on the circumstances. Crito explains that justice can only be truly served if one returned evil for evil as many believed, he uses Socrates situation to support his claims. Crito clarifies that the city of Athens wronged Socrates first, therefore, Socrates has the right to escape form the prison and break the law. Based on Crito’s claims it is understood
Socrates raises several questions regarding Euthyphros’ assertion that what is important and sacred to the gods is “good,” and what is not important and sacred to the gods is “bad.” The quote “What is dear to the gods is pious, what is not is impious,” represents Euthyphros’ opinion regarding what is sentimental and important to the gods is religious and worthy, however what is wrong and sinful is not religious. Socrates asks Euthyphros what would happen if the gods were in conflict, and have differing opinions of what is “good” and what is “bad.” If this were to happen, Socrates wonders, which god would be correct, and which god would determine the final judgment on what is “good” and what is “bad.” This makes it confusing for the ordinary man. How would an ordinary man determine piousness and impiousness without a firm determination of which is which from the gods? If man is supposed to follow the gods’ leads, how can a man follow differing opinions from various gods?
Despite the many ways that Euthyphro could have chosen to respond, he explains it as “doing as [he is] doing” (18). He justifies what he is doing, prosecuting his own father, by saying that the gods, specifically Zeus, have done the same. To Socrates, his response is blatantly insufficient and he challenges it by saying that
He finds virtue only necessary within the boundaries of communities. He is in all ways with the foundation of the Greek society and how it is a source of teachable virtue. Socrates claims that parents cannot teach their offspring’s about virtue. Protagoras argues with him and says the opposite. Protagoras claims that virtue as taught and learned during schooling.