The Executive Order 9066, signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, authorized for land to be established as military zones for the deportation of Japanese Americans into internment camps. The deportation of Japanese Americans was a pusillanimous act ridden by the fear that Japanese American people would act a saboteurs for the Japanese government. Without concrete evidence, innocent lives were led astray solely because of their Japanese ancestry. Japanese Americans were surmised as still remaining undeniably loyal to their ancestral home instead of America, despite that many Japanese Americans were still regarded as “aliens” in the first place. The federal government [at the time] claimed it was merely out of concern for America’s safety but it still cannot be denied that Japanese Americans were stripped of their constitutional rights without contrition or true reflection.
One reason was the fact that the United States began an embargo on Japan, ending the trade of Japanese weapons. This limited Japan from obtaining more resources in their expansion. Another reason was that Japan needed oil to help keep expanding and raise their economy. The U.S. Navy was in their way, by controlling the Philippines, which is why they thought they needed to get rid of them. Lastly, both Japan and the U.S. did not agree on each other’s ways of running government.
Accordingly, the “ Japanese Emperor Hirohito was one of the Japanese officials who expressed reservations about going to war” (Timms). While the Imperial Navy’s Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto, who was also known as the “chief architect of the attack on Pearl Harbor, stated that he believed it was impossible for Japan to win such a war but Japan had to gain the upper hand at the very beginning so that the United States just might be enticed to the negotiating table” (Timms). Hotta revealed her own interpretation by reviewing relevant published primary sources and the reasons why Japan decided to attack the Pearl Harbor. In addition, everyone talked about going to war such as the “Japan’s top brass referring to the prime minister, the foreign minister, the army and navy ministers, and the chiefs of the army and navy general staff”
Also, In 2006 agreement between Japan and United States governments, it was decided to move MCAS Futenma from Okinawan to Guam, but this decision received little support, and later Hatoyama resigned, stating that he failed to fulfill one of his promises. There were also impacts on small scales. For instance, the massive awards that resulted from filing of lawsuits against environmental and noise pollution caused by U.S forces in Japan. There were apologies from U.S officials for the crimes committed by U.S personnel in Japan. There was also, albeit as late as 2006, an agreement to move the MCAS Futenman from Okinawan to Guam.
The debate over the legitimacy of the atomic bombings of Japan generally revolves around what it was going to take to get Japan to agree to an unconditional surrender and what that might cost in American and Japanese lives. Those who supported the use of the bomb took the utilitarian view that it would end the war quickly and thereby save even greater numbers of American and Japanese lives by avoiding an Allied invasion of the home islands. In the context of The Just War Theory, however, the issue still comes down to the legitimacy of targeting civilians in industrial cities this line had already been crossed. Utilitarian considerations, such as the doctrine of double effect, only apply if the intended target is indeed military. Strategic bombing in World War II essentially was a decision to kill people not because of their military role, but because of their nationality.
Japan at the time did not like the idea, especially when the human casualty and lose of the Pacific War lingered in the minds of many of the Japanese citizens and politicians. Although the Japanese government was reluctant, they created the National Police Reserve, which is now called the Japanese Self Defense Force (JSDF). With this, it resulted that the American’s will deal with the problems outside of the United States, while Japan’s forced will deal with internal and natural disaster issues. In 1954 the Japanese Diet created the Self Defense Agency under the wings of the Ministry of Defense and changing its name to
When the internment order first came out, citizen Fred Korematsu was arrested for not complying with the order for those of Japanese descent to report to camps (E). He then sued based on fact that he as an American citizen had the right to live where he wanted. Unfortunately, he lost his case in a 6-3 Supreme Court decision, stating that during wartime such measures were necessary to ensure national safety (E). Beside Korematsu, many wanted to demonstrate their loyalty as citizens of the United States by joining the military, however, they were barred from service (C). It was not until 1943 that the recruitment of Japanese Americans, specifically the Nisei or the American citizens, began (C).
In order to determine a framework of understanding the relationship between sovereignty and territory, I shall begin by critically examining Arjun Appadurai’s thesis on Sovereignty without Territoriality. Working with his method of study, I wish to understand some of the existing representations of localities encircling the notion of sovereignty. Appadurai takes a closer look at one dimension of the modern nation form, that of ‘territoriality’ where his initial argument begins with an agreement with Benedict Anderson that the nation is indeed an “imagined community .” Thus, it is this imagination that will further push us beyond a mere understanding of the ‘nation.’ He traces the principle concept of the nation-state to be associated in the
This, more than anything, shows just how little anything else would have worked against the Japanese. They barely conceded even after the atomic bomb had been dropped, and that was the biggest threat the Americans had to offer. If they had used invasion or blockade, in addition to making the war last longer than it people were willing to bear it may not have had worked in making the Japanese surrender. The decision may not have been ethical, but then again there is no real ethics behind war in the first place. The only part of
Just as the United States was on the right path to bring their economy back to life, the next world war came. At the beginning of the war, the United States remained uninvolved. However, countries like Italy, Germany, and Japan, attacked other countries. The majority of the American citizens wished that their country would stay out of the conflict. Yet, despite the citizens’ attitude, the congress voted to induct American soldiers, as well as strengthen the military.