Racism, discrimination, hate crimes and oppression are all behaviors that evolve from people of one racial or ethnic group perceiving anyone who does not belong to the group as "other," and, therefore, not worthy of the same human rights. Baldwin (2017) expresses this in a scientific manner by attributing this behavior to group identification, which perceives people who are not included within one's racial group as an "outgroup." The manner in which an outgroup is defined may be common, such as those outgroups based on "race, sex/gender, nationality, or sexual orientation" (Baldwin, 2017). The social ramifications of these behaviors are tragic and devastating, both to individual lives and the country as a whole. The Southern Poverty Law …show more content…
This ethical theory states that an action is mandatory and must be obeyed because God commands it and, likewise, an action is considered wrong because God has forbidden it (Yardley, 2012). There are a number of scriptural references to slavery, which led slave owners to rationalize this practice as a reflection of Divine Command Theory. However, if Divine Command Theory is true, one is forced to conclude that "God's commands are arbitrary" because slavery violates ethical standards by defining some people as slaves, i.e., property, rather than as human beings (Yardley, 2012).
Ethical Relativism According to Ethical Relativism, there are no universal truths, which apply to all human beings at all times, and proposes that moral principles should be viewed as "local, conventional, subjective and self-justified" (Yardley, 2012). While ethical principles should conform to social, cultural norms and moral beliefs and practices are frequently products of cultural upbringing, the basis for Ethical Relativism is fundamentally unsound because it can be used to justify and rationalize practices and behaviors that are inherently immoral, such as racism, discrimination, hate crimes and oppression. Ethical
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10). From the perspective of African ethics, the family is intrinsically good, that is, "good in and of itself" (Molefe, 2016, p. 11). It is unethical not to extend "botho" (humanness) to one's family but also to the community at large (Molefe, 2016, p. 11). In African culture, personhood is evaluated as an aspect of moral virtue. For example, "if p is a person then p ought to display in his conduct the norms and ideals of personhood" (Molefe, 2016, p. 13). If this individual fails to exhibit moral virtues, "he is said not to be a person" (Molefe, 2016, p.
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In her book, The New Jim Crow Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, Michelle Alexander who was a civil rights lawyer and legal scholar, reveals many of America’s harsh truths regarding race within the criminal justice system. Though the Jim Crow laws have long been abolished, a new form has surfaced, a contemporary system of racial control through mass incarceration. In this book, mass incarceration not only refers to the criminal justice system, but also a bigger picture, which controls criminals both in and out of prison through laws, rules, policies and customs. The New Jim Crow that Alexander speaks of has redesigned the racial caste system, by putting millions of mainly blacks, as well as Hispanics and some whites, behind bars
As a group, mostly all of our thoughts and opinions were similar when discussing the topic of this paper; which was diversity and ethnocentrism. After reading the first section "In Group Bias", we all agreed that prejudice will arise when different communities are put together. This is simply because people tend to stick together based on their culture, religion, or lifestyle. Natalie mentioned that preferences for an alike group are based on everyone's upbringing; which happens to be the topic of the next section "Questions about Race in Biology and Upbringing". Concerning this section, we realized that multiracial children are often times placed into categories that they do not fully identify with, but they are obligated to identify as because it is how they make friends or meet new kids.
Landon Davis Prof. Becca Klaver WRIT 120A 11 March 2023 Internalized Oppression, Hierarchies, and the Cycle of Discrimination So often we only focus on the direct line of oppression from groups in power, but it is a cycle that continues through the oppressed themselves. Internalized oppression within marginalized individuals creates hierarchies within marginalized groups. This internalized oppression, which can be expressed through racism, homophobia, sexism, etc, can be buried deep within a person and it is difficult to recognize.
Discrimination, in general, creates a dreadful sense of hopelessness and despair, leaving individuals feeling trapped in spaces with no way out. Escaping those mental challenges tends to be a primary goal for anyone; being in a Dana task is ideal when the reality is haunting. To recognize those forms of escape would lead to the resolution of the causes of
In this prompt the argument that Morality exists is irrelevant, contrary to our thoughts and beliefs. Everyone follows a set of moral rules. Ethical relativists disagree with this belief because, they believe that morals are distinctive from each individual culture. These relativists as described are mixing up moral and cultural distinctions, or are simply not willing to completely understanding the cultures they are standing up for. There are two different types of relativism Ethical, and Cultural, that rely upon the argument of cultural differences, which have flaws that make the argument unsound.
In our world, people who are born different from other people are almost always treated differently from those who are “normal”. Nearly every person that is treated differently is treated in a more negative way than they would be if they fit in with other people. This is a terrible and insensible trend that has caused years of suffering throughout human history. Because of unimportant and miniscule discrepancies, such as race, we have decided to put up walls between cultures and make ourselves narrow-minded and un-open to new ideas. The reality that discrimination is universal has lead to discrimination becoming a popular theme in literature and other forms of entertainment.
Normative ethics is crucial in decision-making in the criminal justice system and it is based on the notion that one should act morally using reason to determine the suitable way of conduct of self. Ethical relativism is part of normative ethics and it argues that what is morally right or wrong varies in a great deal from one person to another. The standards of conduct and methods of doing things differ from one society to another and there can never be a single standard of conduct for all societies; we must make ethical decisions therefore based on each situation. Relativism requires that we judge an individual who acted immorally by the standards of his culture and not our own (Cook, 1999). It is effective in just
”(p.19) This shows that in the study of ethics, the study of moral relativism to be more specific, the idea of universal truth does not exist. That is to say what is perceived as “good” or “right” can vary form culture to culture, so there is no way to have one universal truth. Two major examples of cultural differences that are often cited in Support
Every society has its own unique cultures in which people will have different ideas of moral codes. The diversity of these cultures cannot be said to be correct or incorrect. Every society has independent standards of ethic within their society and these standards are culture-bound. Cultural Relativism has a perception in which rightness or wrongness of an action depends entirely within the bounds of the culture. This theory opposes the belief in the objectivity of moral truth.
In other words, “right” or “wrong” are culture specific, what is considered moral in one society may be considered immoral in another, and, since no universal standard of morality that exist, no one has the right to judge another societies custom (Ess, 2009). Cultural Relativism is closely related to ethical relativism, which views truth as variable and not absolute. What makes up right and wrong is determined solely by individual or the society (Ess, 2009). Since the truth is not object, there can be no standards which applies to all cultures.
Cultural relativism has a variety of definitions, but the main idea is that a universal code of ethics does not exist--it varies culture to culture. Rachel’s examines cultural relativism in “The Challenge of Cultural Relativism” and argues that there are commonalities of ethics throughout every culture. Rachels sections off his argument to better explain what they believe. In this piece, they argue that cultural relativism is not a proper theory. They argue that it has many major flaws, but they acknowledge that parts of theory have some truth to it.
Moral universalism does not deny that different cultures have different moral codes, but instead it maintains that those differences are just small amendments of an equally shared moral code. After having demonstrated that the cultural differences argument does not support cultural relativism, it may be interesting to deepen our understanding of the subject by analysing other arguments in favour of it or some in favour of moral
The Strength and Vulnerability of Different Moral Views Over centuries of fervent discussion in the moral world, there is still nothing like a consensus on a set of moral views. This essay attempts to outline and critically evaluate two moral views, namely ethical objectivism and cultural relativism. It is crucial to understand that both moral theories cannot be true at the same time as it results in contradictions, contributing to false beliefs. Additionally, it is essential that we discuss these issues with an open-mind so as to gain deeper insights from them. First and foremost, we will be looking at the prominent view of ethical objectivism.