Two-level utilitarianism Essays

  • Pros And Cons Of Ford Pinto

    1283 Words  | 6 Pages

    The Ford Pinto met federal safety standards yet it had a design flaw that resulted in serious injuries and deaths. There are two general ways of thinking about the decisions made by Dennis Gioia in handling problems. The first appeals to the utilitarian ideal of maximizing good consequences and minimizing bad consequences. This includes the Cost-Benefit Approach, the Act Utilitarian Approach, and the Rule Utilitarian Approach. The second appeals to the ideal of respect for persons. This includes

  • Examples Of Consequentialism

    889 Words  | 4 Pages

    Utilitarianism was first proposed by Jeremy Bentham. Bentham was a legal reformer who lived in England during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He sought an objective basis that would provide a publicly acceptable norm of determining what kinds of laws England should enact. He believed the most promising way of reaching such an agreement was to choose the policy that would bring about the greatest net benefits to society once the harms had been considered. Utilitarianism judges consequences

  • John Locke's Principles Of Morality

    1034 Words  | 5 Pages

    John Locke: He is the father of British empiricism. He defines morality as based on the command of God. According to Locke, the basic principles of morality are decreed by God and are self-evident. From these self-evident principles, detailed rules of conduct can be deduced with certainty as in mathematics. In other words, Locke maintains that good actions tend to cause pleasure while bad action tends to cause pain. For Locke, morality is the law of God, and God supports his laws with sanctions.

  • Utilitarianism And Cost Benefit Analysis

    720 Words  | 3 Pages

    Reflected in many of the most important policy decisions of today is the philosophy of Utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is the moral idea that “what is right (or a duty) is whatever maximizes the total amount of net utility.” Utilitarianism, at the time of its introduction, was a revolutionary moral philosophy. This is because utilitarianism underscores the idea that the consequences of a person’s actions are the most morally significant. So it is not the agent’s well-being that is morally significant

  • James Mill's Conception Of Rights

    1395 Words  | 6 Pages

    4.1. James Mill’s Idea of Rights James Mill clarified the Utilitarian approach to the subject of rights in his writing, Jurisprudence, which he wrote for the Supplement to the Encyclopedia Brittanica. According to him, the rights rank above the duties. He opined that “science distinguished by the name of Jurisprudence, is the protection of rights”. However, James Mill’s conception of rights was in contrast to that of the Benthamite conception of rights. For him, there cannot be any existence of

  • Essay On Divine Command Theory

    1218 Words  | 5 Pages

    The divine command theory, utilitarianism, Kant’s duty defined morality, natural law theory, and Aristotle’s virtue ethics are the five types of ethical theories. The divine command theory states that what is morally right and wrong will be decided by God. Utilitarianism states that “Action “A” is morally right if and only if it produces the greatest amount of overall happiness. Kant’s duty defined morality states that what is important is acting for the sake of producing good consequences, no matter

  • Utilitarianism In John Stuart Mill

    876 Words  | 4 Pages

    Utilitarianism is the theory that invokes the greatest, and least amount of pain and pleasure for the more vast amount of individuals (majority). Utilitarianism is rather a mechanism to find the ‘common ground’ between individuals of different mindsets, and, therefore, make a mutualistic agreement that will either bring great joy, or cause the least destruction. Two philosophers, Jeremy Bentham, the first philosopher to having thought of this concept, and John Stuart Mill, the philosopher who emphasized

  • Key Concepts Of Utilitarianism

    1267 Words  | 6 Pages

    Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that is more interested in consequences than intent. An act is considered right if it’s good outcomes is more than the bad outcomes. People are expected to act in a way that will result in the greatest possible amount of well-being. Utilitarianism became a well-defined ethical theory during the eighteenth century. Utilitarianism can be described as a theory of ethics because it tells good or bad and also right or wrong. But some of the key concepts of utilitarianism

  • The Pros And Cons Of Utilitarianism

    889 Words  | 4 Pages

    autonomy, knowledge, and virtues. A utilitarian only values happiness overall. Next, one must determine what is intrinsically bad, and examples of those are physical pain, mental anguish, sadistic impulses, and the betrayal of innocent lives; though, utilitarianism finds faring poorly in life as intrinsically bad. Once everything is defined, one must now weigh their options, and evaluate the outcome of the actions. Finally, one must choose the option that permits the greatest balance of good overall, so

  • Kant Vs Utilitarian Theory

    1111 Words  | 5 Pages

    Further, a sensation is generally pleasurable and that there is reason to yearn for that sensation hence delivering higher utilitarianism. However, the crucial question is if the reasons recognized reflect the actual structure of the world or the real structure of value and how should individuals defend everyday reason? Kant, in a similar relationship, offers possible

  • Example Of Consequentialism Essay

    1340 Words  | 6 Pages

    outcomes; the most noteworthy example of this theory is utilitarianism. Consequentialism is contested as critics find it overdemanding for application on the virtue of its extensiveness in the individual’s life and reliance on unpredictable consequences, and due to the depth of logic override necessary to maximise happiness in some situations. Rebuttals have been made, and in this essay, I will explain the principles of consequentialism and utilitarianism and argue that the refutations are unsuccessful.

  • Comparing Famine, Affluence, And Morality By Peter Singer

    1773 Words  | 8 Pages

    Here I will lay out each philosophers viewpoint and then highlight some of the differences between the two, as well as draw my own conclusion as to which method is more compatible with my own stance. Perhaps I offer a personal view that may incorporate own perspective independent of either. Adopting a utilitarian approach in his 1971 essay, Famine, Affluence, and Morality, Peter Singer makes an argument for personal responsibility. He feels under necessity to speak about the lack of interest from

  • Hedonism: What Defines A Good Life?

    956 Words  | 4 Pages

    1. The idea behind Hedonism is that the primary human value is to achieve pleasure and avoid pain at all costs. People who follow this ideological way of life define pain and pleasure as the only two things with intrinsic value, meaning that they can identify what’s is “good” or “bad”, if they produce pain or pleasure, making pleasure the ultimate good, and pain “bad”. Continuously pleasure or happiness can be achieved by indulging on physical indulgences, like drinking, eating and sex, now all of

  • Utilitarian And Kantian Argumentative Analysis

    772 Words  | 4 Pages

    to show how the Utilitarian’s and Kantian’s view punishment for a crime and explains how the Kantian view provides a better moral theory. The Utilitarian’s view of morality is that it (morality) is dependent on the consequences of actions and the level of happiness that is brought about by a specific action. Happiness can be determined by the amount of pleasure or pain. If an action brings about more pleasure than pain, then that action is morally right. Likewise, if an action brings about more pain

  • John Stuart Mill Happiness Is Better Than Lower Pleasures

    933 Words  | 4 Pages

    with Mill and argue that higher pleasures are better than lower pleasures. In Mill’s essay, he defines Utilitarianism: ‘’actions are right in the proportion as they tend to promote happiness; wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain and the privation of pleasure’’ (Mill, 7). Therefore, Utilitarianism according to Mill considers actions to be right or wrong based on whether or not they make humans happy

  • Utilitarianism In John Stuart Mill's Onora O Neill

    1072 Words  | 5 Pages

    Utilitarianism focuses on maximizing overall happiness. As a result, utilitarians may use people as mere means in order to achieve maximum overall happiness. This could also be interpreted as if the sacrifice of a few leads to the happiness of many, then it shall be done. Onora O’Neill strongly disagrees with this line of thinking. O’Neill is a Kantian and she believes that people should not be treated as mere means. Rather these people should be treated as ends in themselves, and helped to reach

  • The Singer Solution To World Poverty Analysis

    1805 Words  | 8 Pages

    Singer is a utilitarian philosopher, along with the likes of other famous philosophers such as David Hume and Henry Sidgwick. Utilitarianism is a type of consequentialism in which it is believed that the right act to perform is the one that produces the most utility, or good. When you view the previous example with this mind set, you can see how the varying situations and choices wouldn’t

  • Response To Singer On Individualism

    1959 Words  | 8 Pages

    globe. The amount of resources it would expend for us to resolve that suffering will also be measurably lower. Therefore the formation of interpersonal and intrapersonal relationships is conducive to the incremental promotion of wellbeing found in utilitarianism. Abiding by Singer’s argument renders all existing relationships moot. That is, if I was faced with the dilemma of choosing between my mother’s life and that of a stranger, they would be considered equal. Even worst, if you threw in an additional

  • The Importance Of Distributive Justice

    6642 Words  | 27 Pages

    Distributive Justice Distributive justice implies a more reasonable distribution of resources (Sangiovanni, 2012), together with natural resources and social benefits (Stark, 2010). The awareness of distributive justice somehow relies on whether the benefits are material or symbolic (Sangiovanni, 2012), and Otto, Baumert, and Bobocel (2011) establish that it depends on cultural values. Not only tangible goods are distributed but also intangible things and fairness perceptions depend on how these

  • Criticism Of The Juvenile Justice System

    978 Words  | 4 Pages

    The adversary system is characterized by party control of the investigation and presentation of evidence and argument, and by a passive decisionmaker who merely listens to both sides and renders a decision based on what she has heard. An ideology has developed that seeks to justify the adversary system, but the adherents have had some difficulty settling on the most appropriate justification. The current ideology extols the adversary system primarily as the best system for protecting individual dignity