Kimberly Ramos Mr. Johnson Honors Anatomy and Physiology January 8, 2016 Respiratory System The respiratory system is the system that helps humans breathe and allow every single human to perform everyday tasks. As researchers say the respiratory system consists of organs. The organs that make up the system are the nose, nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and muscles of the respiration. All these organs play a major role in the respiratory system.
1. Describe the relationship between intrapulmonary pressure, atmospheric pressure, and air flow during normal inspiration and expiration, referring to Boyle’s law. - Boyles law states that as the pressure of gas increases then the volume of gas decreases. Which is how intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure are connected to one another. Intrapulmonary pressure is lower while undergoing inspiration and higher than atmospheric pressure during the time of expiration.
In the respiratory system, it contain numerous of organs that help transport blood with oxygen and eliminate the collected carbon dioxide from the blood. The lungs play an important role in the immune system as it helps defend toxic substances and avoid diseases such as: Asthma is a chronic lung condition in which the airways become narrow and easier for irritation to be exposed, triggers can include: pollen, exercise, mold, weather conditions, and stress. It is a most common disease as it affects approximately 26 million people worldwide. In the picture shown, it shows the pathology of Asthma. The first picture shown is a normal airway.
Chest Interesting facts: • A male chest is smaller compared to a woman’s chest As compared to a woman, a male chest is typically smaller and more muscular in nature. A woman’s chest is bigger in size as they contain mild-producing glands which are lacking in males. • The lung is the only organ in the body that can float on water The lungs are made up of millions of balloon-like structures called alveoli, which remove carbon-dioxide from the blood and replace it with oxygen.
Breathing is the transportation of oxygen across from the air in the lungs to circulating red blood cells (erythrocytes) which pass on the oxygen onto cells which require and utilise the oxygen, during aerobic respiration, to produce energy in the form of ATP. This biochemical reaction produces carbon dioxide as a waste product, and it is transported, using the red blood cells (RBCs), back to the lungs and exhaled. Figure 1 shows the relationship between breathing and cellular respiration, with the two connected by the gas carrying red blood cells. Notice the requirement for oxygen by the cells to produce energy in the equation at the top – breathing is how this requirement is fulfilled, whilst venting the waste products from respiration
1. Provide at least two examples of the opposite effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the nervous system. Parasympathic divisions slows the heart rate and breathing in someones body and the sympathy makes these functions work. 2. Explain how the respiratory and the cardiovascular system work together to meet the demands of the working muscle.
Describe the localisation of aquired brain injury. What does this tell us about the functional regions of the brain? A brain injury is any injury occurring in the brain of a living organism. Brain injuries can be classified along several dimensions. Primary and secondary brain injury are ways to classify the injury processes that occur in brain injury, while focal and diffuse brain injury are ways to classify the extent or location of injury in the brain.
Asthma is a condition which affects the breathing of an individual. The bronchial muscles within the lungs go into spasm and so the airways constrict and the result is that it becomes very difficult to breathe. It affects about 10% of the population and is more prevelant in boys with nearly twice as many suffering from the condition. The symptoms are a shortness of breath. The condition appears to run in familes and is known as an autoimmune disease because it is believe the bodies own antibodies attack allergens breathed in by the lungs triggering the symptoms.
Introduction Smoke inhalation means that you have breathed in smoke. Exposure to hot smoke from a fire can damage all parts of your airway including your nose, mouth, throat (trachea), and lungs. If you received a burn injury on the outside of your body from a fire, you are also at risk of having a smoke inhalation injury in your airways. What are the causes?
Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder that results in an impairment of the muscles used for the production of speech (e.g. tongue, lips, vocal cords, etc.). The major speech characteristics of the disorder are slurred, slow speech, imprecise articulation, hypo or hypernasality, weak vocal quality, and difficulty maintaining pitch and intonation. Non-speech characteristics include difficulties with chewing, swallowing, and sucking that can potentially lead to gagging or choking. The type and severity of the dysarthria varies depending on the damage to the nervous system. Dysarthria is typically the result of neurological damage that can occur either during birth or later in life.