Direct democracy is all the power places in the hands of individual. When a political decisions must be made, all members of a polity stick together and individually have a vote. Representative democracy is to set up a medium political actor between the individual and the policy outputs of the state. Through the election, people are elected and assigned with the task of making decisions on behalf of the group of citizens that they represent. Democracy in Malaysia Malaysia is a federation of 13 states which is operating within a constitutional monarchy under the Westminster parliamentary system and also known as a representative democracy.
In 1961 South Africa had a constitution that used the Westminster political system whereby the country had a State President that was elected by the parliament Under the Westminster political system, the country has separate powers where the Executive, Parliament, and the Judiciary were separated because before this system was introduced; all the powers were vested on the Governor-General. The executive powers were put in the State President and he was required to take the advice of the Cabinet. In this system, the State President could be removed for misconduct by resolutions taken out by both House of Parliament after there has been an investigation against him. The Parliament had all the legislative powers which consisted of the House of Assembly and the Senate. The Parliament sat in Cape Town and was allowed to meet at least once per year.
Where the constitution provides for the separation of powers of executive and legislature, the members who sits in the parliament in the legislative power to vote for a law are the very person who also sits in the executive in their executive power to implement the law they themselves voted: it can be said that the executive is therefore controlling the legislature and vice versa. Ministers are the one who make the policy and draft the bill, so when the bill is going through the Parliamentary stage, the member of the Parliament will try to support the Minister’s proposal because they are in same
Political theory and Contemporary International Relations ) Parliament exercises oversight of the executive branch to ensure that it undertakes its responsibilities in exercising various policies for the benefit of the country. Executive is responsible for the implementation of public policies through their ministries and it is required to submit an annual report to the parliament. This allows the parliament to scrutinize and observe if the executive is carrying out its duties. The vote of no confidence is one of the mechanism that the legislature uses to hold the executive more accountable effectively and efficiently. Bicameral and unicameral parliaments have functions which make the executive accountable in different ways; the following can be identified as how the unicameral parliament promotes
BRITISH INSTITUTIONS: PARLIAMENT AND MONARCHY 1. What is the Parliament? The Parliament is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependences and overseas territories. It possesses legislative supremacy and ultimate power over the rest of political bodies in the UK and its territories. It examines what the Government is doing, creates new laws, retains the power to tax fixation and it is where the concerns of the day are debated.
The presidential democracy system is also called as "congressional framework,". The framework is being use in U.S and other countries in Asia and Africa. In the presidential system, elections are schedules and held by strict timetable; in the parliamentary system, the representatives might be called whenever, and either the party in force or the out of force can start a call for the election event. The parliamentary government is also known as "cabinet government" and might likewise be a monarch government where in the ruler, king or queen is in the part of head of state, however their power is solely ceremonial. Nations with parliamentary frameworks are U.K, Germany, Canada, Spain and Scandinavian countries.
Secondly, the parliamentary executives, the cabinet minister and the Prime Minister, share responsibilities. Therefore, the parliament is “jointly responsible for the actions of the government…primus inter pares (first among equals)”. (Haywood, 2007, p. 95) Lastly, a typical feature of the parliamentary system is that the offices of the Head of State and the Head of the Government remain separate from each other. Union is a key feature of the parliamentary governments worldwide. Bagehot once described this feature “as the close union…of the executive and legislative powers.” Unlike the presidential system, which is in operation in the USA, the parliamentary
Thailand like many other places has had many governments with many different rulers, each ruling in their own ways. But currently they are ruled by a unitary government. With the current prime minister being Prayut Chan-o-cha. Misachi (2018) tells, To become the premier they are elected by the lower house of parliament, and must be approved by the King. The premier is the Head of the house of representatives, head of the executive branch, and head of the cabinet.
Parliamentary system is a general government system are used in many countries, there are two types of parliamentary democracies, the Westminster (originates from the British Houses of Parliament) and consensus systems. A parliamentary system is a bicameral system with two chambers of parliament, House of Senate and House of People. The representative mostly from the election, who won the voted. This system were divided into three component executive, legislative and judiciary. Normally parliamentary system related with constitutional monarchies, this mean the ruler as head of state in the country while the head of government usually a member of the legislature.
A blog from the Department of the Philippines says that, “The Philippine political system takes place in an organized structure of a president, representative, and democratic republic wherein the president is both the head of government and the head of the state within a multi-party system.” And since our country is democratic, our political system is divided into three. First is the Executive branch which has the authority and responsibility for the administration of the state. It also executes or enforces the law. Second is the Legislative branch which has the power to enact, amend and repeal laws. The Senate and the House of Representatives are part of this.