In the beginning of the 1800s, most African Americans in the South were trapped in the boom of the cotton industry under slavery. Early on, slavery was considered a “necessary evil”, but in 1831 John C. Calhoun coined slavery as the popularized “positive good”. African Americans were confined in bondage and barely had a chance at freedom. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 essentially prohibited the escape of slaves, while the decision made in Dred Scott v. Sandford practically legalized slavery everywhere in the United States. All slaves were finally freed when the 13th Amendment was passed and ratified after the Civil War. Throughout Reconstruction, the African Americans progressed to gain citizenship and suffrage. African Americans faced prejudice …show more content…
For instance, the anti-black advocates at St. Landry Parish in Louisiana established rules for their congregation through the means of black codes that restricted the rights and livelihoods of African Americans (Doc 2). Previous to the creation of black codes, slave codes were established, while after Jim Crow Laws were created; all served the purpose to discriminate against the African American race and regenerate white superiority. There was a slave code, black code, and a Jim Crow Law that prohibited intermarriage between whites and blacks; proving to be one of many similar restrictions between the three sets of rules. This shows how there was a social continuity in the lives of African Americans in the South in that they continued to experience restrictive discrimination against their race. Furthermore, social, racial discrimination continued through physical violence. Lucy McMillan, a scared and terrorized African American woman, testified that the Ku Klux Klan was going to beat her and burn her house solely because she was “going to have the land” (Doc 4). This shows how African Americans in the South face social continuity due to the constant racial discrimination they faced through physical violence and
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysShow More
In history growing up I learned that slavery ended when president Lincoln issued the emancipation proclamation. After this law was passed, African Americans were embarking a new journey, Radical reconstruction. The end of slavery was only the beginning. It was the beginning of and unjust, corrupted system. Reconstruction was a brief period following the Civil War in which an attempt was made by the federal government to disenfranchise the former slaveholding oligarchy and to improve the economic, educational, political, and human rights conditions of poor whites and blacks in the South (Feagin, Feagin 2011).
"During Reconstruction, thousands of Africans-Americans were elected to local and state governments throughout the Southerns states". (Doc E) Many African Americans leader during Reconstruction had gained their freedom before the Civil War. “In addition 17 African Americans were elected in the United States congress”. As result African Americans and white Americans stood side by side for the first time in political life.
The abolition of slavery for enslaved Africans meant freedom, but for white, farm-owning Southerners, it meant that their businesses would deplete without their workers. To tackle this, Black people were incarcerated over minute mistakes that were technically “illegal” such as loitering or simply being suspicious. This documentary does not hold back when demonstrating that the Ku Klux Klan, one of the lead white supremacist groups of rural America, committed heinous atrocities against Black people. The KKK’s glorification in the media led to the surpassing of hate crimes, especially in the South. 13th includes images of hangings, lynchings, and real KKK groups from this era in American history to set the background for how mass incarceration started at the roots of racism.
The recently freed African Americans plead to receive citizenship and equal rights, they expected to be treated as any other human being. After many years of slavery, the African Americans were finally freed from slavery by president Lincoln. Many of them were granted freedom for serving loyally in the Union army, along with certain rights, such as the right to buy land. The freed slaves were then allowed to purchase land, and received help from the government in the form of establishments such as Freedman’s Bureau and Freedmen’s Aid Society. The former slaves were now allowed to attend certain churches, schools, and were also allowed to socialize in public, although only in certain places.
The Behind the Veil project primary focused on recording and preserving the memory of African American life during the period of legal segregation in the south. The Behind the Veil Oral History Project by Duke University’s Center for Documentary Studies is the largest collection of oral history of the Jim Crow Era. From 1993 to 1995 researchers organized more than one thousand aged black southerners’ oral history interviews on their memories of the era of legal segregation. The accounts of the 1,260 interviews in this selection express the authentic personalities and moving personal stories that give the experience of the book a genuine feel of the South during the late-19th to mid-20th
Shane Boutwell Tara Monica McCarthy HST 112 WI 25 October 2015 African American Change between 1865 and 1920 The African American community has had a long struggle in their battle for equality, fortunately after the civil war abolished slavery in the U.S and began the long road of rebuilding and equality. Not everyone agreed with the abolishment of slavery even after the war because for a long time it was a norm to own slaves, it was just a part of life at the time as the Confederate vice president Alexander H. Stephens referred to slavery as the “cornerstone” of southern life just as many of the southern plantation owners also thought like South Carolina plantation owner Thomas Drayton who said "We are fighting for home & liberty. " But when Abraham Lincoln wrote the Emancipation Proclamation in January of 1863,
After the Civil War, a period that spanded from 1863 to 1877, known as the Reconstruction period began. This time in history focused on transforming the South and changing African American lives. Although progress was made during this time, set backs from white supremacy groups like the KluKlux Klan also known as the KKK, people with pre-civil war or racist mindsets, and goverment coruption,the full effect of the Reconstruction would not be truely experienced or seen for about the next century. Northern civil rights activist and radical Republicans worked to secure rights for free blacks. Many towns, countys, and states made Black Codes black codes restricted the rights of free Africa Americans.
Despite their physical chains being removed, Black Americans during the 19th century entered another form of racialized bondage. Despite facing constant discrimination, three prominent African-American leaders would take note of these issues and formulate tactics on what they believed would improve the black condition. For W.E.B. Dubois, his account of racial subordination is that black individuals are psychologically damaged and conflicted by the ideals of white society. For Ida B. Wells, she asserts that white individuals use violent tactics, specifically lynchings, in order to disrupt the economic advancement of black people. Lastly, Booker T. Washington declares that the institution of slavery has crippled Black people's desire for economic
Post Civil War, African Americans started to gain rights to gain rights, and soon gain rights equal to whites. While there were some people/things standing in their way (KKK, Black Codes), in the end they got what they needed; Equality. Many acts and laws were passed to aid the new rights now held by African Americans, as well as the numerous people willing to help. New Amendments were added to give African Americans rights after the war, all giving them some equal rights to whites. The first of the three added was the Thirteenth Amendment, it gave African Americans freedom from slave owners, and stated that no one could be kept as a slave in the U.S..
Over the course of many years, African Americans have influenced communities in many ways. African Americans have been used as slaves and segregated. After overcoming these struggles, they later were granted freedoms and rights. Many African American individuals have overcome these hard times and worked hard to achieve their dreams. Misty Copeland, Patricia Bath, and Madam C.J. Walker are courageous African-American women who have overcome racial stereotypes because of their determination to pursue what they love; Misty Copeland’s determination led her to pursue dance, and Patricia Bath and Madam C.J. Walker were strong, African American entrepreneurs.
The Fight Against Colorism in African American Communities Colorism is defined as a practice of discrimination among African Americans against other African Americans because of their skin complexion, for instance being too light or too dark. Colorism plays a large role in the low self-esteem in the African American community, from individuals, relationships, and employment. Colorism can cause psychological effects. Children are more affected because skin biased develops at a younger age.
However, changes that were made during Reconstruction greatly impacted the lives of many African Americans. While some efforts were made to achieve a status of equality, many suffered continuous discrimination and were denied (deprived of) their basic civil
Throughout history, African Americans have been physically and emotionally degraded as human beings by the whites. Even after the Civil War, a vast number of Southern whites refused to accept African Americans as freed individuals and continued to treat them with great hatred. As seen through the Black Codes and the Ku Klux Klan society, it revealed whites’ attempt to re-establish regional dominance over the black community. During 1865 and early 1866, many state legislatures in the South passed the Black Codes. These new set of laws continued to oppress African Americans and prevented them from living freely.
During the Reconstruction period, the North and the South had very different ideas on how to handle all of the new problems in America regarding the freed slaves. Though the North and the South had contradictory ideas that ranged from the basic needs of the freed slaves to establishing new state governments, the Reconstruction period strived to unify the North and the South. In the Reconstruction period, freedom was a new idea for many African Americans and they aimed to establish all of their new rights, even if they were unsure of their lives after the Civil War. The North and South, both having different ideas, had two different ways to meet the basic needs for food, service, and industry.
In the years of the Civil War, African Americans played an important role in contributing to the Union Army and the confederate army. A great deal of African American men volunteered to join the Union Army but only after they gained freedom did they participate in fighting the war. Besides the Union Army, there was the confederate army which consisted of slave labor whom were forced to aid the confederacy following their masters. Later in the war, the Confederacy ran short on men and were in need to supply soldiers, leaving no choice but to enlist the colored men. Not only were African American men impacted from the war, but African American women also served to supply and aid in the war.