“The war that ensued started at Fort Sumter, South Carolina, on April 12, 1861, and lasted four years”(Confederate.., pg1). The North and South were quite different, so during the Civil war, each side had advantages politically, socially, economically, and demographically. One of the Advantages the North had was Political. The South seceded from the Union because they feared the end to slavery, so when they left the union they had no government. After all of the states seceded, they announced the creation of the Confederate States of America.
African American after the Civil War enjoyed many privileges that their predecessors could only dream of. They could vote, hold office and attend school. New Orleans, Louisiana, was one of the more integrated cities in the South. It desegregated its streetcars in 1867, began experimenting with integrated public schools in 1869, legalized interracial marriage between 1868 and 1896, elected a total of 32 black state senators and 95 state representatives, and had integrated juries, public boards, and police departments. But after the war things began to get good for African American, and the south thought they needed to do something, after war, which severely limited the rights of black and segregated African American from White American.
It altered the course of the war, led to the impartiality of all blacks, and changed the future for the posterity. The Emancipation Proclamation altered the course of the war for the better. It was now moral responsibility to triumph the Confederacy and unbind the millions of African Americans held in subjugation (Bodenner). This document also changed the Civil War from a war of troubles to a campaign of human freedom (Emancipation Proclamation History.com). Amongst the Civil War, General Patrick Cleburne had mentioned how, “slavery, from being one of our chief sources of strength," had evolved into "one of our chief sources of weakness" (Bodenner).
Following the prologue, Lemann focuses his research on Adelbert Ames, a Republican politician in Mississippi during the Reconstruction era, to detail the attempts to keep the south in accordance to Reconstruction policies issued by the Grant administration and federal government directly following the war. While he was initially appointed as provisional governor of Mississippi, Ames oversaw the 1869 election that passed the new Mississippi constitution, guaranteed rights for blacks and elected a heavily Republic legislature. While attempting to transform the political climate of the state, Ames listened to horrifying reports of his political enemies and observed the attitudes towards blacks which motivated him to campaign to be Governor: I
Black Radical Republicans also joined Southern politics to enshrine a civil rights agenda and to rebuild the South in a more progressive manner (469). Radicals also created policies such as the Freedmen’s Bureau, the Reconstruction Act, the Reconstruction Amendments (Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth), and used Congress to take apart the Klan in the
Further more, in 1865 President Johnson excluded African Americans from southern politics and allowed state legislatures to pass restrictive “black codes” regulating the lives of the freed men and women. This caused an increase mobilization within the black community, with meetings, parades, and petitions calling for legal and political rights, including the all-important right to vote. In 1867 during the Radical Reconstruction, Congress granted African American men the status and rights of citizenship, including the right to vote, as guaranteed by the 14th and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Blacks made up the overwhelming majority of southern Republican voters, forming a coalition with “carpetbaggers” and “scalawags”. A total of 265 African-American delegates were elected, more than 100 of whom had been born into slavery.
The civil war began in the year of 1861, many historians have established theories for the main cause. Four of the possible theories include, morality and views on slavery, two societies, failure to compromise, states rights and Lincoln's election. Although all of these play a big role in the causes of the civil war, I believe the principle cause of the civil war was, the existence of two societies in the United States beacuse the South wanted to become more independent, had multiple uprisings due to slavery, and had differnt oppions on slavery. America was split into the North and the South, both very diverse. Some might say that the North was very independent and the south was very dependent on the north.
President Andrew Johnson had tried to veto the Civil RIghts Act of 1865 but it was overturned and the act became a Law. President Johnson’s attitude toward this led to the growth of the Radical Republican Movement and it also increased intervention in the South, more help to former slaves and also to Johnson’s impeachment. The Black Code, Freedman’s Bureau, and the Bill of 1865 are all prime examples of how the African American’s have freedom. In 1865, the Civil War ended offering more freedoms to all African American
In the 19th century, slavery and the Reconstruction was a sore subject for the South. Reconstruction forged civil rights for African-Americans, but once the North’s influenced waned in the South, the South terrorized African-Americans and blocked them from accessing their newfound rights. While Reconstruction may have brought civil rights, those rights were quickly squashed by the South’s racism. Even after certain freedoms were securely gained, every new attempt to make African-Americans equal to the white populace was contested. A large group of people were happy to see slavery ended and civil rights rise.
The Reconstruction Era occurred in 1865, it was was a period after the Civil War in which America was focused on rebuilding the broken South. In 1867, the Radical reconstruction gave former slaves a voice in government. During this era, formers slaves gained a platform in the government, with some blacks as Congressmen. However, not everyone supported the idea of Reconstruction. Less than a decade after the Reconstruction period, a small group composed of democratic ex-confederate veterans, white farmers and white southerners sympathetic to white supremacy joined forces together to form the Ku Klux Klan.