Southerns still wanted to uphold white supremacy in the South. So in 1865, ex-Confederates formed the first Ku Klux Klan which targeted black supporters of Brownlow’s. Freedmen would suffer at the hands of the Klan by having their stuff burned and people beat. In 1873 the Supreme Court undercut the power of the Fourteen Amendment arguing that the amendment only offer few federal protections to citizens.
The education tests, Grandfather Clause, and Black Codes all express that Reconstruction was unsuccessful. This was on account of it didn 't finish the objectives of Reconstruction since one of the two fundamental objectives of Reconstruction was to increase social liberties for liberated slaves. Thusly, this turns out to be unsuccessful in light of endeavors at taking without end the privileges of African Americans, which undermined this bigger objective. Through state governments, laws were made which took away the rights that they were attempting to be picked up by African Americans, for example, voting, being able to pick who they work for, and not being oppressed. The motivation behind southern state governments taking endlessly those rights from African Americans was to reproduce servitude and reproduce an arrangement of white pecking order, which in fact had been banned.
The questions at hand were complex, and involved citizenship and government aid, and had to take the public’s varied opinions into account, as well as the political makeup of Congress. The 13th Amendment freed the slaves, but gave the slaves nothing except their freedom. The 14th amendment defined citizenship, then not only made discriminatory legislation (such as black codes) illegal, but provided consequences for states that did not comply. The Reconstruction Acts, although too broad and expensive to be applied in their entirety, required that the former Confederate States ratify the 13th and 14th amendments, as well as submit redrafted state Constitutions in order to be readmitted to the Union. The 15th Amendment made it possible for people to vote regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”, making it a radical, although certainly not selfless, act that granted African-Americans political power
It was the realization that everything that they had been conditioned to think or react was in fact just a shield to control the what was the “inferior” race in their eyes. Many white Southerners tried to resist the change, claiming they were only helping the black population or keeping balance by “protecting” them from what radical thinking could spring from. Thankfully later on in the century, this racist mindset was brought to light and black civil rights activists became more prominent figures as they fought for equal opportunities. A battle that had arguably happened much later than it should have, set off by the works and efforts of those like Griffin, who went against the flow of societal norms in risky experiments. So while there were flaws and mistakes in John Griffin’s experiment in Black Like Me, that same experiment helped bring the mindset of many inside and even outside of the South into a better, less deprived view of the world around them with some resistance.
“White civilization by refusing to recognize the equal political rights of the blacks, and an understanding from the beginning that the negro should be made to know his place in social and economic order..” (472-473). I agree with browning, it is impossible for change to happen if you do not let it happen. In this case it was impossible for blacks to acquire rights when whites did not permit such
slaves wherever they were, this new change brought great difficulty to the Southern black population. The Purpose of the Reconstruction Era was to create a society where blacks and whites could co-exist with slavery. Blacks did not know how to be free and whites did not know how to have freed slaves around them. The south saw the Reconstruction Plan as a humiliating, even vengeful imposition and did not welcome it. After the war, many teachers from the south and north worked to educate the newly emancipated population.
So he decided to claim liberate slaves and ordered the Union Army to free the slaves that were in the country’s open rebellion areas. This issued a preliminary version of the Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862. Oka3 The proclamation ending slavery as a union war aim. On January 1, 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation took place. While the proclamation remains a justly famous moment in American freedom it 's important to remember that it was issued as a war measure under president Lincoln 's war powers.
He appointed a cabinet composed of Northerners and Southerners and hoped to keep peace between the country’s pro-slavery and anti-slavery people, but it created lots of tension. People were accusing James of being biased to the southern colony interests and slavery issue. Two days after being in office, the U.S. Supreme Court gave a document that stated, “The federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the territories and denied African Americans the rights of U.S. citizens.” He hoped that the document would resolve the slavery issue, but he, “reportedly pressured a Northern justice to vote with the Southern majority in the case.” Then, the southerners were contempt, but the northerners were protesting, which led to diversity. Each had complete different opinions, and it was just getting everybody upset. Buchanan made the Northerners even more angry by supporting the Lecompton Constitution, which would have allowed Kansas to become a slave state, but it was voted down and Kansas became a part of the Union.
Efforts from the congress after the rejection of President Andrew Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan involved enacting laws and amendments that enforced equal rights only to the now freed male slaves and gave them the right to vote and hold office. The government, confronted with formation of anti-equality groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and many others that opposed equality, soon enacted the Black Codes. The congress then passed the Freedmen’s Bureau and Civil Rights Bills in hopes to settle the quarrels of slavery by declaring all born in the U.S as citizens but unfortunately, Johnson declined these bills. To retaliate, the Civil Rights Act
Reconstruction was an attempt reconcile the country and bring it back together, however it was not the success Abraham had hoped it to be when initiated before being assassinated. The failure had many effects on African American communities in both the north on the south both negative and positive. Socially black slaves were freed but not really accepted into society. Black codes were utilized which placed pressure on African Americans about things like when to meet with friends and where they should live. Discrimination against black flourished as the Ku Klux Klan a group of people who wore robes and mask went around pretending to be the ghost of Confederate soldiers.