The virtue ethics theory focuses on what actions or choices an individual should choose based on their own personal inward character. Therefore, if an individual’s character is good then his or her actions or choices should also be good. The virtue ethics theory places responsibility on the individual for their actions or choices when confronted with a moral dilemma. Whereas, “a utilitarian or a Kantian theorist asks, what should I do?, a virtue ethicist asks, in effect, what should I be?” (Vaughn, 2010, pg. 134).
This criticism has as its main target Korsgaard's argument for humanity. Just like the criticims of Korsgaard's constructivism, Tenenbaum and FitzPatrick believe that morality in Korsgaard's theory is based upon something that the individual agent does. The difference is that they argue that even if the individual agent chooses to reason in the way that Korsgaard wants him to reason, this way of reasoning is flawed. Here I will shortly discuss their argument to show that it is based upon the interpretation of the self as the source of normativity that I am
Rosalind Hursthouse has a very different opinion on abortion and does not relate it to the murder of children or the rights of women. Instead, she justifies it through what a virtuous person would do. In the case study with the Thompson’s, Hursthouse would relate it to the relevance of the familiar biological facts and how pregnancy is a known result of sexual intercourse. The fact that Linda’s fetus is four months old would not be of relevance in Hursthouse’s opinion as clear lines are not visible as to when the fetus is attached and developed. The main focus of Hursthouse would be to question whether the abortion would be a result of a person acting “virtuously or viciously or neither” (Hursthouse 474).
Many perspectives of ethical theory do not take this mix into consideration and state that morals are either completely subjective or objective. One of the biggest strength of the virtue ethics arguments is the fact that it allows for morals to be both objective and subjective. Aristotle spent a lot of time thinking about virtue ethics and observing the traits that he valued in others. Through this he saw common traits that he admired in everyone from which he derived four traits he determined to be absolutes: courage, loyalty, generosity, and honesty (Rachels 176). Yet he still recognized that many other
Rosalind Hursthouse in her paper Virtue Theory and Abortion, handles with the moral standpoint of abortion from a virtue ethics perspective. Her research is directed towards investigating whether or not an abortion is something a virtuous person would do. Hursthouse examines the morally relevant considerations and in so doing, she rejects the standard questions used to determine the morality of an abortion such as the status of the fetus, and the rights of a women. The morally relevant considerations she sees fit to assess the moral legitimacy of an abortion are concerns with family relationship, personal circumstance, and basic biological facts. Through her considerations, Hurthouses account of virtue ethics gives us adequate moral advice in regards to the question of abortion.
Hume doesn't raise whether or not we are able to rationally prove that God exists, however rather whether or not we are able to rationally return to any conclusions regarding God's nature. He asserts that the primary question is on the far side doubt; the latter is ab initio undecided. Hume presents 3 characters, every of whom represent a unique position on this issue, engaged during a dialogue along. Demea argues for the position of non secular Orthodoxy, and
She asserts morals are culturally defined based on what’s considered the appropriate behavior in each society. To determine aspects start with a list of criteria it would be good to evaluate. The questions will be categorized into descriptive or perspective. It might get more of one than another. Some aspects can't be separated.
A person 's character is the totality of his character traits and can be good, bad or somewhere in between. The admirable character traits, marks perfection in character, and are called virtues. It enable us to act in accordance with reason and also to feel appropriately, and have the right intention. Virtue theory can be used to determine the rightness or wrongness of an action by relating the choice to admirable character traits. The reason why attention should be pay to virtue theory is that it centers on character.
Rosalind Hursthouse brings up the concept of the virtue theory in her argument. Hursthouse argues that virtue theory determines what is good and what is bad by having a set of rules in place that force us to lean towards the good in life. The set of rules will be a set of virtues that are essential for humans to thrive and flourish. Hursthouse suggests virtue theory as a way to determine whether abortion is okay or not. The status of the fetus is one of the major keys determining whether the abortion is appropriate or not appropriate, but according to Hursthouse the status of the fetus does not apply into the virtue theory.
Whately adopted the conservative position that there is a presumption in favor of prevailing opinions in existing institutions, like the Church. The reasons why he adopted this conservative attitude may not be entirely clear, but his account of the connection between burden of proof and presumption is clear. According to his account, the burden of proof is initially placed on one side or the other at the outset of an argument. This initial placement has an effect on subsequent argumentation. The party who bears this burden has the responsibility