INTRODUCTION This assignment will be discussing Generalised Anxiety Disorder based on Jessica’s case study. This will be done by interpreting and discussing Generalised Anxiety Disorder and Major Depression as umbrella diagnosis to the case study using relevant clinical description. Biological, psychological and social aetiology of Major Depression and Generalised Anxiety disorder as disorders seen in Jessica’s case will be explained. We have identified Jessica’s case as that of Generalised Anxiety Disorder and Major Depressive disorder as she shows symptoms of each of the disorders. Diagnostic criteria Burke (2009) gave symptoms of Generalised Anxiety Disorder as the diagnostic criteria adapted from the DSM-4 and ICD-10 which are grouped …show more content…
The mood exceeds ordinary feelings of dissatisfaction and random sadness. Other symptoms include sadness, feelings of guilt and worthlessness. In the case study, it is reported that Jessica suffers from feelings of worthlessness and shame due to her inability to perform as good as she normally does. She is critical on herself and exerts an enormous amount of pressure on herself in order to meet her intended goal. As a result of this, she blames herself for not meeting the standards she set for herself which results in her depressed mood. Her inability to perform as good she does led her to lose her self-confidence and self-esteem further adding on to the symptoms she displays of Major Depression (Burke, …show more content…
According to Burke (2014), overall tendencies that are associated with anxieties are hereditary and can also result in a nature that may have a great risk of ever developing an anxiety disorder. Same as that for Major Depression Disorder, one would assume that in Jessica’s case, she may have been at a high risk level of developing a mood disorder through her genetic make-up which may be triggered by stressful life events (Burke, 2014). Neurochemistry By learning more about brain circuitry involved in fear and anxiety, scientists may be able to devise more specific treatments for anxiety disorders. Someday, it may be possible to increase the influence of the thinking parts of the brain on the amygdala, thus placing the fear and anxiety response under conscious control. In addition, with new findings about neurogenesis (birth of new brain cells) throughout life, perhaps a method will be found to stimulate growth of new neurons in the hippocampus in people with severe
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But with the lack of information about her fears I would want to dig deeper before diagnosing Maria with agoraphobia. I thought it was interesting that Maria was diagnosed with school phobia as a child. I would want to explore the circumstances and symptoms that led to that
Studies conducted by the Hopkins OCD Family Study have revealed a complex pattern of inheritance potentially involving multiple genes (Nestadt et. al, 2010). The most substantial supporting evidence of this theory is the effectiveness of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (S.S.R.I.s) in controlling the obsessions and compulsions (Goodman et. al, 1989).
Introduction Throughout the human life, many events will occur that cause individuals to experience the feelings associated with anxiety. Examples of these events that can cause individuals to experience anxiety are public speaking engagements, eating in restaurants, and using public restrooms (Sands & Gellis, 2012). The diagnosis of anxiety is sustained when the emotion is experienced with significant frequency and intensity, when the psychosocial functioning of the individual is impeded, and when the reaction is not conducive with the stimulus (Sands & Gellis, 2012). In addition, a significant amount of individuals who are diagnosed with anxiety disorders face the challenges of maintaining employment, or becoming active participants within their communities because of tremendous distress.
Disorders I Battle With “For people aged 15-44, psychological disorders are the leading cause of disability in the United States,” (Rathus, 2010). Psychological disorders are a huge part of some people’s lives as they affect many aspects of social interactions along with how the person goes about doing personal things. A part of that includes personality disorders, which are patterns of traits that are unchangeable and affect an individual’s life tremendously. Some of the disorders can fall under the title of anxiety or mood disorders, which are feelings of dread or fear generally because of some danger or having inappropriate mood changes. One way to look at how to identify these disorders is through gaining knowledge of the subject through
Summary The authors of this article talks about a study in which they did on human fear conditioning through neuroimaging. They evaluated the brain activity under numerous mixture rates between conditioned and unconditioned stimulus. An introduction of an attentional-associative that house emotional fear or fear memory. The anterior cingulate cortex may be part of the development of fear which includes traces of the fear memory.
Introduction: Genetic Role in Phobia(s): When grouped with generalized phobia and other anxiety disorders, some estimates place the rate of individuals suffering from anxiety at some point in their life as high as 25% (Kessler, 1994). Due to the high rates of anxiety disorders, the genetic link merits consideration and must be thoroughly evaluated. The majority of evidence indicates there is a consistent, albeit modest contribution of genetic factors to the development of specific phobias. This ‘modest contribution’ means that the predisposition for specific phobias can be passed down from parents to children. One unique, apparent exception to this rule that appears time and time again in published studies is a SP known as blood-injection
Because of this, her emotional instability behaviors were amplified. She had a lot of public breakdowns and she disappointed a lot of fans just by walking off stage in the middle of a performance and not coming back. “Her vulnerability, her fragile personality and
(Page 540). I wanted to learn much more about this term, since I have friends as well as family that suffer from psychological disorders, so I wanted to dig deeper and find out just why they are caused, and the behaviors associated with them. One fact that I learned about anxiety disorders is that about thirty percent on Americans have at least one anxiety disorder during their lifetime. I also learned in this course, that few disorders are typical, are far from atypical and that the rates that they appear are pretty
Fear is a complex human emotion that represents the brain’s response to sensory stimulus indicating danger. To become afraid, the brain must receive a stimulus indicating a danger. This stimulus is routed to through two different parallel pathways: The thalamo-cortico-amygdala pathway (the long route) or the thalamo-amygdala pathway (the short route). The short route, or the thalamo-amygdala pathway, skips the cortex, and information about the stimulus is sent directly from the thalamus to the amygdala. This gives only a cursory perception of the situation, because no cognition is done.
Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders in the United States affecting over 40 million adults today. Among the six major types anxiety disorders, the following paper aims to compare three of them. Though post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) share some similarities in terms of their clinical description and causes, each has its own unique characteristics, and therefore require different treatments. Clinical Description Though OCD and PTSD are unique disorders, the two share a number of similarities in terms of their clinical description.
Experts wanted to develop specifiers based on the specific domains of feared social situations (Bogels et al., 2010). Three distinct domains were discovered by multiple studies, which included fear of performance, fear of social interactions, and fear of observation situations. As there was a lack of supporting evidence for the generalized subtype, but a discovery of fear of performance as a variant of SAD, a performance anxiety subtype was proposed for the DSM-5. In addition, Bogels et al. (2010) felt it was necessary for the DSM-5 authors to incorporate fear of social situations and fear of observation situations into the SAD
"One way to understand OCD is that the normal cortical inhibition of the amygdala is malfunctioning and that the anxiety responses induced by the amygdala therefore become more intrusive and chronic in patients with OCD. ? ," write Denys, Zohar, and Westenberg in?"The Role of Dopamine in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence. " Dopamine comes into play in response to amygdalae-generated anxiety in that dopamine drives seeking activity. Seeking activity includes not only the search for food, drink and sex but?in times of anxiety and fear?access to safety. Denys, Zohar, and Westenberg write: "When dopamine is increased, the ability of the prefrontal cortex to suppress the affective responses generated in the amygdala is attenuated.
The diagnostic tool used by psychologists to classify and distinguish various mental illnesses is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). In 2013, the the DSM was updated to the DSM-V as many disorders were brought together, while others were scattered into different categories (Barlow et al, 2015). One common category of mental illnesses that are quiet prominent in society are anxiety disorders. Anxiety can be defined as a feeling of worry or being in a negative state. It is characterized by uneasiness, physical tension, and apprehension about the future (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
The vast majority of findings support that mood and specifically anxiety impairs memory. This relationship often leads to formation of false illusions of memory. However, studies have yielded inconsistent results. Contradicting evidence supports, that stress could enhance or have no effect on memory (Cazakoff, Johnson, & Howland, 2010). Additionally, Lee (2008) reports that when a memory is consolidated and then activated, it can be modified following a protein degradation process.