Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Case Study

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"One way to understand OCD is that the normal cortical inhibition of the amygdala is malfunctioning and that the anxiety responses induced by the amygdala therefore become more intrusive and chronic in patients with OCD. ?," write Denys, Zohar, and Westenberg in?"The Role of Dopamine in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence." Dopamine comes into play in response to amygdalae-generated anxiety in that dopamine drives seeking activity. Seeking activity includes not only the search for food, drink and sex but?in times of anxiety and fear?access to safety. Denys, Zohar, and Westenberg write: "When dopamine is increased, the ability of the prefrontal cortex to suppress the affective responses generated in the amygdala is attenuated." We will discuss neurocircuitry related to obsessions, compulsions, and other symptoms more fully in Parts 2 and 3 of MyBrainNotes.com.
Especially regarding PTSD, past experience is a key. Neuroscientists have found that experience shapes …show more content…

The atrophy emerges as a result of the depression (rather than precedes it), and the longer the depressive history, the more atrophy and the more memory problems."
Sapolsky points to the work of psychologists Martin Seligman and Steven Maier who exposed animals to "pathological amounts" of stress. "The result is a condition strikingly similar to a human depression." Sapolsky explains that it is "repeated" stress that generates depressive symptoms combined with "a complete absence of control on the part of the animal." In other words, the animal has no outlets that can be used to vent frustration. "When it comes to what makes for psychological stress, a lack of predictability and control are at the top of the list of things you want to avoid," Sapolsky

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