Ap Psychology Midterm Study Guide

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1.Classical conditioning is a learning process first discovered by the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov in the early 1900s.The theory of Classical Conditioning deals with the learning process leading us to gain a new behavior via the process of association.Internal mental thoughts and brain mechanisms play a huge role in associative learning.Classical Conditioning works by pairing involuntary response with stimulus. After which, unconditioned response becomes conditioned response.Pavlov’s dog experiment is a base for the establishment of classical conditioning theory and its concepts.
In classical conditioning, generalization is defined as the process in which a stimulus similar to the original CS produces similar behavior identical …show more content…

Skinner in 1938.Operant conditioning is a form of learning which explains the relation of behaviors on certain rewards and consequences.The study of the theory only deals with expressible behaviors and not any internal mental thoughts and brain mechanisms.Operant Conditioning works by applying two major concepts, Reinforcements and Punishments, after the behavior is executed, which causes the rate of behavior to increase or decrease.Skinner’s Skinner box experiment with a rat is the base for operant conditioning theory and its concepts.The main principle comprises changing environmental events that are related to a person's behavior. For example, the reinforcement of desired behaviors and ignoring or punishing undesired …show more content…

Classical conditioning, on the other hand, involves forming an association with some sort of already naturally occurring event.
2.Sensory memory stores incoming sensory information in detail but only for an instant. The capacity of sensory memory is very large, but the information in it is unprocessed. If a flashlight moves quickly in a circle inside a dark room, people will see a circle of light rather than the individual points through which the flashlight moved. This happens because sensory memory holds the successive images of the moving flashlight long enough for the brain to see a circle. Visual sensory memory is called iconic memory; auditory sensory memory is called echoic memory.
Some of the information in sensory memory transfers to short-term memory, which can hold information for approximately twenty seconds. Rehearsing can help keep information in short-term memory longer. When people repeat a new phone number over and over to themselves, they are rehearsing it and keeping it in short-term

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