Ap World History Dbq Essay

958 Words4 Pages

The period 1750 to 1900 saw a huge transformation in all aspects of society. Beginning in Great Britain, the manufacturing process shifted from hand production to factory production. Newly-invented machines, utilising steam power for the first time, caused the number of goods being produced to grow exponentially. Rather than goods having to be created slowly and by hand, factory systems yielded more and more products, creating everything from pairs of shoes to machine guns. This new system not only impacted economies, but political structures and social norms. However, the revolution spread mainly to Europe and the United States, so various nations in Asia found themselves falling behind in industrialization. Two Asian powers that sought to …show more content…

In the mid 19th century, the Chinese were experiencing extreme poverty and discontent. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, China was a booming economic power, producing a large majority of the world’s goods. But the country fell behind in technology and industry, not understanding how to utilise and distribute their land effectively. Rebellions, such as the Taiping Rebellion, and the military failure of the Opium Wars demonstrated to the Chinese government that reform was required. After defeating the rebels, the government attempted to appease them with the Self-Strengthening Movement. This series of reforms were a blend of Chinese cultural traditions with European industrial technology. Mainly focused on military, the government sought to acquire technology by bringing in foreigners from the West to educate them. However, they aimed to then surpass the West in superiority. After gaining new military technology, the movement aimed to improve the empire’s industry through the use of steam power, increased mining, and better communication, like the telegraph. It also focused on businesses in China, like the cotton and textile industries (which were intertwined with those of Europe). Additionally, the Chinese government conducted the Hundred Days Reforms under Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao. Previously fearing that industrialization …show more content…

During this time period, the empire was declining. Military expansion was slowing as the Europeans progressed in technology and strategy. The corrupt government heavily taxed its citizens, who were driven into poverty. Agricultural production slowed, and the normally export-dependent empire imported large amounts of cheap goods, damaging its own economy. Disgruntled and in debt, the government finally turned toward reform. Early action took place in the early 19th century to reduce taxation and corruption, and increase agricultural output. Sultan Selim III and Sultan Mahmud II reformed schools, taxation, and the army. They had telegraph lines built and postal services instated to improve communication. However, most importantly of the reforms was the Tanzimat reforms. These reforms were rooted in Ottoman nationalism, the ideology being that industrialization and modernization could only occur in the empire after it was unified. Paper money was printed and banking systems were created to organize the treasury. Slavery was abolished in favor of the more-productive paid labor. Modern universities were built, and public education began. Steamboats, telegraphs, and railroads were constructed. The empire finally began to catch up with the Western World. These successful reforms differed greatly from the Qing reforms, as they were by far more successful. While China only

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