Although Bowen’s family systems theory, and Bowlby’s attachment theory are unique with their own thoughts and perceptions, both of the theories can also be taken as different viewpoints of the same human experience, specifically the development of relationship patterns and human attachment. Both theories touch upon the influence that unsolved problems in the parents may have on their children. Attachment theory focuses more on the infant’s first attachment, or primary attachment. This is usually between the mother and the infant. If the attachment is interrupted and the infant’s needs are not being met by the primary attachment, mother, this could adversely affect the infant’s cognitive and mental development as well as future attachments.
Bowlby, notably researched a set of abandoned orphans and the negative effect separation from their parents had on them (Bretherton, 1992; Senior, 2013). This led him to conclude attachment formed in these years influenced one from birth to death (Chopik, Edelstein, & Fraley, 2012; Drewery, 2011) For instance, he stated that people with early attachment insecurity, are more susceptible to psychological issues such as high anxiety and riskier health behaviour (Bretherton, 1992; Cooper, et al., 2008). Ainsworth, also believed in prominence on early experiences of attachment. This alludes to her study, the Strange Situation, which focuses on children’s responses to separation and reunion events with their parents (Bretherton, 1992; Main, 2000). She stated that based on the quality of parental care, a child would fall within three categories of attachment. A child whom received sufficient care, would develop secure attachment and, thus, be confident and steady individuals. Yet, a child receiving insufficient care, would either become insecurely anxious-ambivalent, thus, becoming clingy, distrustful and hypervigilant to the world; or alternatively would become insecurely avoidant, being rather dismissive to situations around them (Bretherton, 1992; Main, 2000). A fourth category of disorganised attachment was added, referring to children whom lacked attachment mechanisms completely (Main, 2000). Both these theorists wanted to display the importance of early life experiences in development and the following arguments will display how their theories proved
include several surveys or researches. These methods imply in several cases such as serial killers,
attachment theory has helped many researchers to identify children who are exposed to adversity. It assists therapist to help not only infants and parents But, also adults who experience lack of
Mary Ainsworth’s study on attachment theory continues to be widely discussed today. If a child has been mistreated by a primary caregiver, how does that affect the child? When a child is raised in an abusive household, it has an impact on the child’s life. What do they do? Where do they turn? If their primary caregiver is proven untrustworthy, who can the child trust? Furthermore, how does the child cope? The environment children are raised in has an immense impact on their lives. According to Ainsworth, “attachment refers to an affectional tie that one person forms to another specific individual… attachment is thus discriminating and specific” (Salande & Hawkins, 2016). Without an attachment to an adult, a child has no guidance or direction in life. Therefore, if a child grows up in an unstable family structure, this child is more likely to develop an insecure attachment style in adulthood. Attachment theory confirms the importance of human relationships and their consequences for individual development (Schneider, 1991). As one continues to grow into an adult, it is important to have one to look up to for guidance, no matter what the situation may be.
The term attachment is used widely when focusing on children’s early relationships. An attachment can be thought of as a unique emotional tie or bond between a child and another person which usually is an adult. Research shows that the quality of these bonds or attachments will shape a child’s ability to form other relationships later on in life. In the 1950’s a theorist John Bowlby identified that children and young people’s mental health and behaviour could be linked to separation from a child’s primary carer. He also identified that young children can show separation anxiety if their primary carer is not there for them.
Ainsworth’s descriptions of attachment were found to be related to relationship development. Specifically, adults with avoidant tendencies tend to be relatively uninterested in romantic relationships, have a higher breakup rate than secure adults (Shaver & Brennan, 1992), and grieve less after a breakup (Simpson, 1990). Anxious adults are obsessed with their romantic partners and form extreme jealousy (Collins, 1996; Hazan & Shaver, 1987). Relationships with a partner who has an anxious attachment have a higher rate for breakups as well. However, those with a secure attachment style are highly invested in their relationships and tend to have long, stable ones that involve friendship, trust, and positivity (Hazan & Shaver,
Throughout the history, there have been heated discussions on what constitutes a good life. Philosophers have given different annotations on the meaning of good life based on their beliefs, perspectives or even scientific-based evidences. Some view a good life as an accumulation of material goods that brings “large amount” of pleasure to oneself. On the other hand, Mencius and Aristotle advocate good life as possessing of pleasure that incorporates ethical values and they believe that by doing so one will experience enduring happiness. There is no ultimate right or wrong for these interpretations since this is not a factual question. Therefore, rather than giving an accurate definition of a good life, this essay will focus on expressing my
In sum, adult attachment in romantic relationships is very complex, the attachment theory and model for adults generalized from what we have now between infant-caregiver attachment may be not sufficient. Future studies may eventually lead to an empirically confirmed understanding of how attachment styles affect or result in stress in intimate
The Community Care Act 2014 sections 1, 2 and 4 highlights the general responsibilities of the act and it could be said the ones that most affect social workers in making decisions for action. We will look at these sections to see how they fit alongside the BASW Code of Ethics for Social Workers (2012).
Border line personality disorder (BPD) also referred to as emotionally unstable personality disorder or emotional intensity disorder (Blom & Dirk, 2010) Royal College of Psychiatrists state (2013) that research shows personality disorders fall into three groups and the accepted criteria for diagnosis in England is The American Psychiatric Association (APA), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in which BPD (2013, p.659) is categorized under Cluster B category: dramatic, emotional or erratic. The Dsm V describes a pattern of impulsivity and instability of behaviours, interpersonal relationships, and self-image. The pattern is present by early adulthood and .occurs across a variety of situations and contexts (APA, 2015).
Relational experiences are significantly influenced by the quality of an attachment bond that is established in childhood, specifically between a child and their parent/primary caregiver (Marsa et al., 2004). According to the attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969), an attachment displays the bond between a child and their parent (primary
Attachment theory tries to describe the evolution of personality and behaviour in relationships and it gives a reason for the difference in a person’s emotional and relationship attitudes.
One of the most important factors that affect a child 's development is the relationship and attachment of the child with their primary caregiver. John Bowlby studied the development of the child; he was interested in how childhood relationships affected kids as they grew older and became adults. He was also concerned with the relationship of the child and primary caregiver and how they interacted, and the effect this had on later life. Bowlby 's theory established that children’s earliest relationships shaped their later development and characterized their human life, "from the cradle to the grave"(Bowlby, 1998). The attachment style that an infant develops with their parent later reflects on their overall person. Bowlby 's attachment theory had vast investigation done by Mary Ainsworth, who studied the interactions between mother and child, specifically, the theme of an infant’s investigation of their surroundings and the separation from their mother. This essay will focus on Bowlby’s attachment theory and Mary Ainsworth’s experiments and findings, discussing their views on the development and importance of attachment in early life.