For example, the malate can be transported into the mitochondria via the malate shuttle and re-enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Then again, cytosolic malate can be oxidized to oxaloacetate, which can be converted to aspartate or glucose [Jones et.al 2000]. Step 5: Hydrolysis of arginine to form ornithine and urea Enzyme Arginase is required in this step. The arginine is hydrolyzed to generate the urea and to change the ornithine. It occurs in liver cells cytosol.
Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also known as SDS-PAGE is one of the methods for determining the molecular weight of unknown proteins. SDS is an anionic molecule which denaturizes proteins and brings it back to its’ primary structure and it also provides a negative charge to the uncharged molecule. The SDS-PAGE enables the separation of proteins based on their sizes. The larger the size of the protein, the harder it is to travel through the gel thus heavier proteins stay near the cathode side of the gel. For this experiment, a software named Gel Analyzer was used in order to obtain the molecular weight of the unknown proteins with the help of a protein ladder with known molecular weight and protein concentration.
Opening: Liver function tests are blood tests used to diagnose and screen the function of the liver. The tests measure enzymes that liver cells release in response to damage or disease. Here is some more detailed information about these common tests. Body: Liver function tests can have the objective to: • Measure the severity of a disease, especially cirrhosis; • Monitor potential side effects of some drugs. • Screen for liver infections, such as hepatitis; • Monitor the development of a disease, such as viral or alcoholic hepatitis, and determine how well a treatment is working; Liver blood tests typically consist of six separate tests run on a single blood sample.
Name: Sarah Trudel Student Number: 5973771 1.Describe the process of water, nutrient and electrolyte reabsorption in the nephron of the kidney. In your answer, make sure to address the following questions: (11 marks total) a) What molecules are reabsorbed in each tubular element of the nephron? (7 marks) Tubular reabsorption is the process of reclaiming water and solutes from the tubular fluid and returning them to the blood (Saladin, 2004). The first part of the nephron that is involved in the tubular reabsorption is the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) (Silverthorn et al., 2013). Once the glomerular filtrate reaches the PCT, the following molecules are reabsorbed: Water (H2O), Sodium chloride (NaCl), bicarbonate ions (HCO3-), Calcium
SAMPLE REQUIREMENT: Type of specimen: Serum (Blood collected in Plain tube and centrifuged to separate serum). PRINCIPLE OF TEST: In the presence of a strong base such as NaOH, picrate reacts with creatinine to form a red chromophore. The rate of increasing absorbance at 510nm due to the formation of this chromophore is directly proportional to the creatinine concentration in the sample and is measured using a Bichromatic (510,600nm) rate technique. To correct for non-specific reaction caused by serum/plasma pseudo-creatinine chromogens, including proteins and ketones, the results for serum or plasma are corrected by -18 μmol/L (-0.2 mg/dL). (2, 4, 14-18) Alkaline pH (NaOH) Creatinine + picrate red chromophore (absorbs at 510nm) EQUIPMENTS & APPARATUS: Siemens Dimension® clinical chemistry analyzer (X pand and RxL Max) Flex reagent cartridge, Assay Cups, tips, pipettes.
This leads to excess beta globin chains in patient’s hemoglobin. The two genes HBA1 and HBA2 involved in this disorder are located on chromosome 16 (Williams et al., 1996, Allen et al., 1997). The normal genotypic representation of α-globin is αα/αα. There are two varieties of α-Thalassemia: α+ and α0 Thalassemia. The Heterozygotes form of α+ Thalassemia (−α/αα) is deficient of one linked α-globin gene.
Cell clusters in this organ are named by pancreatic islets. Each islet has alpha cells (make glucagon) and beta cells (make insulin). Those hormones are secreted into the circulatory system. Balancing the glucose level in the blood relies to the antagonistic effects of insulin and glucagon (Reece 2011, 910). References: Reece, Jane B., Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky and Robert B. Jackson.
It is responsible for the secretion of hormones and processing of emotional responses. In addition, it deals with storage of memories, that is, determining which memories are stored and where those memories are stored.Other functions include autonomic responses as a result of fear and in initiating arousal. It forms part of the limbic system. Olfactory Bulb It forms the end part of the olfactory cortex and is an extension of the ventral surface of the brain (Freberg, 2009). It is responsible for receiving and processing information concerning smell.
A complete blood count is a procedure in which the patient’s blood will be drawn and evaluated for the amount of hemoglobin (protein that carries oxygen) in the blood, the quantity of the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the blood, and how much of the blood sample is composed of red blood cells. A peripheral blood smear may also be used if blood is drawn because it checks the blood for things like an irregular teardrop shape of red blood cells, the amount and different kinds of white blood cells and the amount of platelets. It also determines whether or not blast cells are present. In a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, blood, bone marrow, and bone is removed by a needle, called a Jamshidi needle, inserted into the hip or breast bone. It is then observed by a patholigst through a
(9) stated that several tumors can express FasL, that is considered a mechanism by which tumors can escape from destruction by the immune response. The members of Bcl-2 family are as well a group of important regulatory factors in apoptosis (10) as they play an important role in mitochondria pathway-mediated apoptosis (11). BCL-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) was firstly known as a gene whose product causes resistance to apoptosis in lymphocytes. Later studies, identified a number of both pro- as well as anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-related proteins