Brown v. Board of Education was a Supreme Court Case held in Topeka, Kansas, May 17th, 1954 declaring segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. It did end segregation in schools but problems followed shortly after including struggles with the Civil Rights laws, voting rights and bussing. The 15th amendment “grants all men the right to vote and shall not be denied on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude”. This was especially towards African American males in the South. Many Southern states tried to prevent them from voting by requiring that all male African Americans to pay a poll tax and take a literacy test which is a test of one’s ability to read and write.
If a person from 1975 through to the present and see black and white people are studying in the same school and sitting together, the person might doubt that what he saw. “The case Brown v. Board of education happened on May 17, 1954 in the United States. Before this case, Plessy v. Ferguson case was adopted by the supreme court at 1896, which was segregation not violated the fourteenth amendment so that separate race is equal in law.” (Duignan) Even though Abraham Lincoln abolished slavery and gave black people the right to vote after he became the president of the United States in 1861, it does not lead to the equal between white and black at that moment.
The Brown vs Board of Education, the landmark Supreme Court decision was a historic win as it finally put the 14th amendment into practice. In terms of the impact it has had on social welfare. The case victory allowed for future programs, resources, services to be distributed among the African American students. Such as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 are services that include students of color. As we move forward more policy’s will be created keeping in mind on how to serve poor communities and how to build schools that can serve the community to reach out to young students in helping them strive regardless their race and economic status.
The Supreme Court case, Brown vs. Board of Education 349 U.S 294, dealt with the segregation of black children into “separate but equal schools.” The Brown vs. Board of Education was not the first case that dealt with the separating of the whites and blacks in schools. This case was actually made up of five separate cases heard in the United States Supreme court concerning the issue of segregation in public schools. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Briggs v. Elliot, Davis v. Board of Education of Prince Edward County (VA.), Boiling v. Sharpe, and Gebhart v. Ethel were the five cases that made up the Brown case. Thurgood, Marshall, and the National Association for the Advance of Colored People (NCAAP) handled these cases.
One of the greatest Supreme Court decisions is Brown v. Board of Education. Children during the 1950’s were racially segregated in public schools which violated the Equal Protection Clause under the Fourteenth Amendment (“Brown v. Board of Education, par 1.) A significant amount of the United States had segregated schools in 1954 because the court case Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, states that segregated schools were constitutional as long as the black and white facilities were equal. The black families had to send their children to all-black schools that were usually miles away from where they lived. The schools were not as great as the white schools, and the buildings were often run down and dangerous.
Despite that racial segregation in public schools became unconstitutional due to the notable Brown vs. Board of Education court case in 1954, that was merely the beginning of the transformation of American society and acceptance. Subsequently, the new racial movement allowed other minorities to have the courage to defend their civil rights. This was not only a historical moment for minorities, but for women as well. Women, regardless of race, revolted against oppression and traditions. To be politically correct was now discretional.
An example of a Supreme Court overturning, would be Plessy vs Ferguson. States from the south had laws that had a disadvantage for black people. Plessy who is a light colored black, decided to sit on the white section of the train, and declared his ancestry a couple of minutes after. People demanded him to move, but he refused. He was arrested for not moving.
The Civil Right movement was a broad and diverse effort to attain racial equality, compelled to the nation to live up to its ideal that all are created equal. The movement demonstrated that ordinary men and women could perform extraordinary acts of courage and sacrifice to achieve social justice. The event of Brown v. Board of Education and advocates such as Thurgood Marshall and Rosa Parks greatly impacted the United States. Thurgood Marshall applied to the university of Maryland Law school, however he was turned down because he was and African American. Therefore he decided to go to Howard’s University an all black historical school.
The Cold War is a very significant event, and perhaps one of the most important throughout US history. The Cold War shaped American in many aspects like, foreign policy, political ideology (ism’s), economy, the presidency, and lives of American’s. According to APA, (American Psychological Association) the Cold War was, “intense economic, political, military, and ideological rivalry between nations, short of military conflict; sustained hostile political policies and an atmosphere of strain between opposed countries.” The Cold War on foreign policy had to step up against the Soviet Union, the strategy they implemented was called “containment”. Containment was a policy used by the US using strategies to prevent the spread of communism overseas
Definitions of Equity and Equality: According to the dictionary the term equity implies to the “quality of being fair and impartial”. While equality is the state of being equal; correspondence in quantity, degree, value, rank, or ability. Equity vs Equality in Education The terms "equity" and "equality" are often misused and interchanged when referring to educational equity.
Brown V. Board of Education was a court case that challenged the idea of “Separate but equal”, the cause of this court case was that there was segregation going on in certain areas such as stores, parks, and even schools. One of the major causes of this court case was the Plessy V. Ferguson court case. The idea of the Brown V. Board of Education court case was to challenge the “Separate but equal” policy. The separate but equal policy was the idea that blacks and whites are separated but are still equal.
In the 1954 landmark school desegregation case, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (347 U.S. 483), the U.S. Supreme Court settled that it was unlawful to discriminate against a group of people for arbitrary reasons. The Court determined that education was defined as a important part of government that should be given to all citizens equally. The Brown decision by the U.S. Supreme Court set a example that was used by parents and advocates to secure equal educational opportunities for children with disabilities. Two court decisions in 1972, Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and Mills v. Board of Education, District of Columbia started a bustle of litigation pertaining to the education of children with disabilities. The litigation, along with vocal and the combined efforts of parents and politically powerful advocacy groups, led to federal legislation in 1975 for students with disabilities.
The Dred Scott v. Sanford case involved a lawsuit made by a slave name Dred Scott claiming that he should be granted his freedom. His claims were based on the argument that his master Dr. John Emerson had illegally held his during trips to Illinois and Wisconsin which were both free territories. With Dr. Emerson having died at the time of the lawsuit, Scott sued his widow. The lawsuit was ultimately taken on by her brother Sanford hens the name Died Scott v. Sanford. Unfortunately for Scott, he was not identified as a citizen because he was a African American.