This article was extremely relevant in the 1980s because of the looming threat of a nuclear war between the United States and Russia. In his publication, Sagan assesses the environmental, social and economical consequences of a nuclear war; he relies more on facts and figures, rather than rhetoric devices, and makes use of personal anecdotes and prior knowledge about the subject to support his claims, along with simple, but slightly harsh and threatening language to get the urgency of his message across to his readers. Sagan begins the article with some facts and figures to discuss what he believes would be the possible outcomes of a nuclear war; he explores the occurrence of increased ozone depletion due to conversion of nitrogen in
Singer begins new parts of his argument with rhetorical questions. Because the question of how much to give is such a controversial topic, Singer needs to be able to answer the variety of questions readers will have about his claim throughout the article, and the best way for him to do that is to anticipate the questions readers and answer them in his article. In the question about giving more than our share is an excellent example of this. This device works two-fold. First, it answers the questions many people will add increasing his credibility.
Generally, Singer hopes that people should make a plausible budget to donate money to strangers (384). He starts criticizing Americans who waste their money in things that not necessary to them when he said, “The average family in United States spends almost one-third of its income on things that are no more necessary to them than Dora’s new TV was to her” (379). Here, Singer is trying to warn families not to spend money in not necessary things that this money could mean difference between life and death. At this point, the author is very serious about people’s spending, which could save children’s lives. He also gives his reader a story about Bob, who been in a difficult situation that he can save a child’s life, but he could lose his fancy
Melatus claimed that Socrates " did not believe in the gods in whom city believes but in other new divinities" and at the same time accused him for not believing in any Gods (26c-27a). There is a contradiction. Socrates cannot at the same time be an atheist and believe in other new divinities. Therefore, Socrates defended himself by asking a question "if anyone believes in human affairs but not in humans, in equine affairs but not in horses, in flute music but not in flute players " and then asked if any man believed in divine activities but not in divinities? ( 27b-d).
Steven Shapin proves his thesis throughout the book through the use of primary and secondary sources in his three different sections of the book. The first section is titled “What was it Known?”. In this section, he utilizes important figures such as Galileo and his findings about the heavens and the earth along with Aristotle, Newton, Descartes, Boyle, and others to explain the scientific ideas presented in this time period.
Barry writes about the last-minute process of the science fair project and the “importance” of the fair. In the beginning of the essay, he states that the science fair is there “for a good reason: Your teachers to hate you”. This introduces the idea that science fairs are pointless and show no real value as most students do not start their projects until the night before. Barry adds more humor as he mentions the required display boards that cause “many top scientist fail to win the Nobel Prize”. This use of sarcasm shows how unnecessary the rules and the fair are.
I think the parson in the second story is too egoist and just care about himself. He persuades everyone not to believe the apothecary and tries to strike down the apothecary. This story teaches me to respect each other because as a human being, I will need someone’s help in my life. Life can change, when I don’t need someone’s help for today, it does not mean I do not need it for the rest of my life. So when I think someone is unimportant for me today, in the future, maybe they will determine my fate.