10- Transfer the ester layer to a small dry test tube and dry the ester with anhydrous CaCl2 and stir for 10 min. 11- put it in a preweighed dry round bottom flask . 14- Determine the yield, refractive index, and % yield of ester. Conditions :- 1) This reaction is catalyzed by acid, Like Fischer esterification. 2) Usage of water in step (5):So that after Estrification is completed , any excess unreacted acetic anhydride is hydrolyzed.
Calibrate the spectrophotometer the same exact way so that it does not mess up the calculations gathered. This week using yellow dye #5 mix .20 milligrams of this will 250 ml of distilled water in a volumetric flask. Make five different solutions, distilling the water each time, of new yellow dye solution and place each of the solutions in a blank cuvette to find the max absorbency of each the solutions. Next during week two the absorbency had to be found from the food that was brought in. Using a blank cuvette place the commercial liquid and calculate the concentration and absorbency and which dyes would be in this liquid.
Flow rate A: .010 mL/min b. flow rate B: .010 mL/min c. Flow rate C: 1.000 mL/min 11) Click download and turn detector off, leave computer and pumps on FT-Raman Method 1) Fill the blue dewar with liquid nitrogen and wait 20 minutes then top off 2) make sure the FTIR is on 3) Turn on the laser power supply switch and then turn the key to the on position 4) Make sure the lever between the Raman and FTIR is up, the lever between the Raman and microscope is down, and the internal lever in the Raman should be up, meaning bypass closed 5) Double click on the Varian Resolutions Pro icon to open software 6) From the current scan menu select Raman scan 7) Optics parameters should be: a. IR source: off b. Beam: right c. Detector: Raman Ge d. Beamsplitter: quartz near IR e. Accessory: FT-Raman f. ATR Crystal: none g. Optical filter: holographic notch h. Aperture: open 8) Select the laser tab and click turn on diode 9) Press the shutter switch on the front of the Raman (to open) and turn the power to its highest,
The weight each potato slice was obtained using electronic balance scale. Each beaker was then filled with 200mL of each of the different Sucrose concentration (200 mL of 5% in one and 200mL of 10% in the other). Each beaker was then labeled with the percentage of sucrose it contained for data purposes. Potato 1 was placed in the 200mL of 5% Sucrose and Potato 2 was place in 200 mL of 10% Sucrose. A timer was set for 20 minutes once the potatoes were placed in the beakers.
The 5 mL of catalase was put in the 90℃ water bath for five minutes and was then put in an ice bath after the five minutes were up. Lastly, the third graduated cylinder was labeled ‘V’ since it contained 440g of ascorbic acid also known as vitamin C. All three graduated cylinders were put in the 70℃ water bath after adding their own catalase alongside three test tubes of H2O2 for 30 seconds. After the specified period of time, the graduated cylinders were taken out of the bath and the H2O2 was added to each of them and that is when the timer started. The recordings were taken every 30 seconds for 90
The column was heated to 40 °C and coupled to a detector PDA-SPD-M20A detecting every 1.2 nm from 190 to 800 nm. The used eluent is a mixture of 85% water acidified to pH = 3 with H3PO4 and 15% nitric acidand the flow rate was set to 1 mL/min. The detection wavelength was set at 222 nm. The identification of intermediates by HPLC analysis was verified by comparing their retention time and the UV/VIS spectra of pure
The mixture was stirred until the entire dissolved and homogeneous. The materials were ready each put in a bottle 100 mL size vial, then sterilized with autoclave for 15 minutes at 121 °C. The preparations hydrogel done within aseptic at LAF cabinet. Evaluation of chloramphenicol hydrogel ophthalmic preparations Organoleptic test Organoleptic hydrogel checked by observing changes in color, odor and clarity. Clarity was checked visually by examination
Making sure that the beaker is dry before hand. Get the stopwatch ready to record the time of the reaction. Apply one of the 100mL Acetic acid into the beaker and start the stopwatch as soon as the two substances meet. Record the qualitative data observed in the
The set-up of the experiment at this point can be seen in Figure 3. Immediately, started the digital stopwatch (± 0.01) s and recorded the time taken (s) for 10.0 ± 0.5 cm3 of oxygen gas to be evolved. Repeated steps 5-13 four more times to minimize the impact of random error and allow for the collection of sufficient data. Then, all test tubes were thoroughly cleaned using a test tube brush to remove any leftover solutions. Afterwards, placed the test tubes in the test tube rack to air
Then to 25% and to 12.5% and finally to 6.25% To test its impact on the integrity of the membrane Dependent Variable Change in absorbance Absorbance was measured using colorimeter by taking a sample of ethanol To measure the absorbance of ethanol Controlled Variable Temperature ( 37 Celsius) Use water bath of 37 Celsius temperature. Accuracy Time 1 hour the beetroot cores were put in a distilled water for 10 minutes to make sure all the pigments that are released due to the plasma membrane damage are washed away. Total time for trials is 1 hour. The measurements are taken every 10 minutes. To measure the accurate time when the membrane will break Size and type of the beetroot (size of beetroot) Used the same beetroot for the entire experiment.