DBQ During the 16th century the large religious movement known as the Protestant Reformation took place. Protestantism was a new way of religion that challenged the usual Catholic religion. It was a very controversial idea throughout Europe, where as many countries accepted it as their religion but the countries part of the Holy Roman Empire were against it. Protestants most likely opposed the basic Catholic values, they did not like the way the Holy Roman Empire was run, and they disapproved of the Pope. Between 1524 and 1526, the new changes that were brought by the reformation such as the teachings of Luther depicted personal freedoms of the peasants, which were simply not present in Germany, as these …show more content…
For example, Sebastian Lotzer, a craftsperson and a lay preacher, and Christoph Schappeler write, in the Twelve Articles of the Swabian Peasants, “We will not allow ourselves hereafter to be oppressed by our lords but will demand only what is just and proper”, this showed that the peasants did not agree with their landowners. This document was likely written in order to express the idea that the conditions that the peasants faced were not fair, so they could tell the religious and political figures opposing the revolutions that the peasants would only work if it was in fair conditions (Doc. 2). Similarly, In the Articles of the Peasants of Memmingen, The Peasant Parliament of Swabia to the Memmingen Town council write “…we have been held as your poor serfs…But it is not our intention to reject all authority. We will be obedient to all authority appointed by god in all fair and reasonable matters”, this again shows that the peasants do not reject the authority of the landholders intentionally, but instead because they are being held as poor serfs to the abusive landowners. This document is likely a reliable source since it was written by 2 men in the regular working class, and it was written in the Articles of the Peasants of Memmingen, to be read by the opposition (Doc. 3). Also, …show more content…
One example, is when Leonhard von Eck, the Chancellor of Bavaria, explains how the peasants are acting “blinded, led astray, and made witless”, he tries to make the peasants look bad and tries to put all the blame on him. I think that Leonhard is likely not a reliable source of information as he may be making false claims to try to control the situation in his report to the Duke of Bavaria (Doc. 1). Similarly, Martin Luther says ,in the Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants ,that the peasants are out of place, and use the Bible to express their desire for freedom. I think that this displays how the religious figures might view the revolt. Martin Luther likely wrote Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants so he is not held accountable for the revolt, since Luther had written about Christian religious freedoms he didn't want anyone to link him directly to the revolts (Doc. 5). Luther did not believe in this deadly revolt, he saw the freedom of the Christian in spiritual ways instead of a deadly battle that took the lives of almost 100,000. Lastly, In the Decree of the Imperial Diet of Speyer, the effects are clearly stated, this document shows some of the actions that the government takes in order to suppress and the actions it takes, punishments such as stripping of their lands were put in place ,after the revolts to prevent
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The Protestant Reformation had a huge impact in all Europe in the sixteen century, but which ones were the factors that lead to it? It is very important to highlight that the European Christianity was falling into a noticeable corruption of its popes and some other high position members. Robbery, and even warriors were among of some factors that took the Cristian Church to a declining path. One of these examples was the Pope Julius II, which one won the nickname “the warrior pope” because he led armies against people. Furthermore, the church was not the only factor promoting this reformation, some other social changes were occurring with the masses in Europe; many of the peasants were being free especially in the western Europe.
“This rebellion has been undertaken to repress the princes and the nobility and has its ultimate source in Lutheran teaching, for the peasants relate the majority of their demands to the Word of God, the Gospel, and brotherly love.” (Doc. 1) This article sourced from the Chancellor of Bavaria shows how the peasant's view of lutheranism has sparked the revolt. Even in document 3 the Peasant Parliament of Swabia says that christ is the emperor, meaning that he controls everything and the actions they are committing is in is name again reveals a source for their outrage against the wealthy. “It is clear that the assertions they made in their Twelve Articles were nothing but lies presented under the name of the Gospel.”
Furthermore, being a peasant was not a choice for peasants. Articles of the Peasants of Memmingen refers to Christ sacrificing blood for both the peasants and the emperor (Document 5). His say is that if God discriminated peasants like people do then he wouldn’t have offered them the same thing as he offered the
The Protestant Reformation was important in European History because with it came a Counter-Reformation. The Reformation revealed corruption in the Church, such as buying and selling salvation—indulgences—for profit, simony, and the overall battles for power and wealth (within the Church). Martin Luther and John Calvin were crusaders for the reformation and were able to share their ideas and beliefs effectively; they were then accepted/recognized by the people—the educated and uneducated, the middle class and nobility. Luther and Calvin’s beliefs allowed for other people to find a sense of freedom and individualism in religion.
The Protestant Reformation broke out in Germany in the beginning of 1517. The Church and the Pope began to lose power and authority and people began to question the teachings and ways of the Catholic Church. Ideas of new religions, such as Protestant, Lutheran, and Calvinists, started to spread throughout Europe. The Church was corrupt and started to lose followers. These problems led to people speaking out against the Church and it became a revolution of political and religious debates.
Social DBQ Beginning in the 16th century, there was a growing unrest among the serfs primarily in modern day Germany. High taxes, joined with the fact that peasants had no opportunity to increase their social standing, let alone the right to do so, gave an atmosphere of disaccord between the noble, and lower class. Internalizing the egalitarian ideologies of Martin Luther, it was easy for the peasants to feel like they had greater place in among society. However, due to semi-feudalistic attitudes of those days, peasants were the lowest social class and needed to stay that way for such a social structure to function. Martin Luther’s teachings that through faith everyone could be equal in God’s eyes gave peasants a false sense of equality,
The Protestant Reformation was a cultural and political change that splintered the Catholic Church in Europe. Reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Henry VIII challenged papal authority and questioned the Catholic Church’s ability to define Christian practice. The person that had the most responsibility for this rebellion is Martin Luther. People agreed with his beliefs against the catholic church and they followed him. The Protestant Reformation affected people a lot by either unifying them or dividing them.
In 1526, the Decree of the Imperial Diet stated that wronged lords and noblemen were allowed to fully regain control of their estates and serfs (Doc 7). This decree was a direct response made by the assembly of imperial councilors and Emperor Charles V; during this time period the council consisted of only nobles and the wealthy, therefore the response toward the rebellions was quite negative because they were the ones being directly affected by the revolts (POV). The population of Germany responded differently to the peasants rebellions based on their viewpoints during that particular time
Protestant Reformation Protestant Reformation was a European Christian movement. This movement, led by Martin Luther reformed the Roman Catholic Church practices and begin Protestantism. The reformation started because of the corruption of Roman Catholic Church. The corruption that begin the protestant reformation was phony relics and indulgences. The church priests would sell these relics to poor people knowing that they were fake and build on lies only to make money for the church.
Analysis of Protestant Reformation Reasons What were the religious, social, economic, political and cultural reasons of the Reformation? To explain why did the Reformation happen, historians usually start with the impact of Martin Luther’s religious ideas and his effect on the society. However Reformation is something which has to be covered from various aspects, for instance, it can be seen as an economic protest against the Church’s eager to fleece its religious folk, or as a political uprising of the German princes to confine the authority of the Church in their country, as it was regarded as a foreigner institution which was based in Rome. The Reformation was also closely related to cultural reasons such as the notion of nationalism.
The sixteenth century in Europe was a time of change for the Europe. People were starting to question the Church's authority, some people who questioned the Church were Martin Luther, John Calvin and Henry VIII. These people helped to start the Protestant Reformation. The Protestant Reformation was a time when new religions were formed by people who protested the Catholic faith and what it was doing. Many people date the start of the Protestant Reformation with German Martin Luther's
The Protestant Reformation began with a movement made by a monk simply to criticize and challenge the actions of the Church. From the disapproval of selling indulgence to the demand of equality, multiple forces have sparked the inception of the Protestant Revolution. Martin Luther’s decision to take public stand against the Church was revolutionary to the society. A movement for religious reforms, known as the Protestant Reformation, was born. Luther’s beliefs were soon adopted by and appealed to every levels of society.
The peasants’ revolts in the German states occurred after the Reformation had gripped Europe. Religious figures at this time such as Martin Luther, and John Calvin, as well as writings like The Ninety-Five Theses, incited many peasants to look with new ideas about Catholicism and the clergy, which led to a call for reform, and later rebellion, the causes of which were mainly the oppression of lords against the lay people economically and physically, as well as extreme Lutheran teaching. Martin Luther, and those that were accused of the oppression, the nobles, responded by saying those that took part in the rebellion were unchristian, and should submit to proper authority, shaping the conflict and the rebellion.
The new form of Christianity played a major role during the Renaissance period. As people discover a new way of thinking, they began to question many of the teachings present in medieval Christianity. The new form of Christianity ran by Martin Luther’s was well known by the Protestant Reformation, however; with many Catholics and Protestants wanting a change in the church they campaigned for a shift from the medieval learning and medieval form of Christianity. However, a complete overview of the doctrines was not consented by all within the church. Many Catholics wanted to reform the church from within, but Martin Luther and his follower disagreement of church policies led him to break away from the Catholic Church.