He emphasizes that organized religion and sects are more focused on following specific rules and practices, than concentrating on really understanding God and His ideas of humility, moral behavior and virtue. Benjamin Franklin tolerates and accepts people who have different mindsets and commit themselves to organized religions; however, even though Franklin believes in God and His creations, he considers organized religion as something that does not inspire morality and, instead, creates a hostile environment among people. The importance of religion is reflected through its use for society. Many people left their homes in Great Britain to start a new life in a foreign country they were not accustomed
Moreover, he uses pathos because the puritans basically based their society on faith, they reached their emotional level because the puritans god was a vengeful god and they feared him. He tries to convince puritans to be a good example, and desires other towns to look upon theirs as an idolatry Puritan community. He uses persuasive diction and figures of speech to reinforce his idea of a “city upon a hill”, which is having absolute unity and conformity in able for the colony to prosper. Finally, in Patrick Henry speech, “Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death!”, wants for people to go to the war, so they won’t be seen as somebody weak, he goes for that we go to war not for the love of bloodshed but to prove them their strength than they think. In other words, he wanted the people to feel good about their troops and what they need in life.
Luther was a former Catholic monk who wrote the 95 Thesis document and nailed it on the door of the Catholic Church of Wittenberg. Once this happened many people all throughout Germany began to react to his convictions. He exposed the church for what he believed to be corrupt. Different protestant denominations began to spring up and they were in conflict with other Christian sects about the matter of how best to worship God.
The Puritan Dilemma In the earlier American years, there was the existences of a great deal of politically and religious turmoil in England. There was the desire of escaping and going to places where they are free to congregate by their philosophies in which they have faith. John Winthrop saw America as a country in which they could not have any interference from the government. Winthrop sees America as a paradise and a place for religious freedom. Winthrop believes that the church in England is corrupt and requires purification to become more pleasant to God.
During the 1730s and 1740s the Great Awakening was a religious revival that lead by the Protestants. The main idea of the revivals was to preach a new idea of being reborn which meant that one must except Jesus Christ as their lord and savior. Once that occurred the people in return they will be forever saved and be forgiven for the sins they have committed in the past and the ones they will commit in the future. The text the Itinerants Chapter 2 from the Great Awakening PDF is a great text to read for information on the Great Awakening. The text shows how people like George Whitefield and others like him reshaped the landscape of the religious world.
Writers came to see these crusades as a way that was appointed to rescue Christians form persecution and invasion. In addition, history chronicles down these events that led to the various crusades as a way of dispossessing land that belonged to Christians. One other justification concerning the crusades involved fulfilling spiritual vows to go to a crusade. Well, any war can only be justified as the only last resort for defense when it is clearly demanded of God (When God speaks directly to an individual or people). Therefore, after the war there different opinions were propagated by writers as whether the crusades could be justified or not.
Puritans, Quakers, and Catholics were coming in droves to America searching for an opportunity to have religious freedom. The New Englanders took religion seriously, making unitary laws according to Puritan standards. John Winthrop, later chosen as the first Massachusetts Bay Colony governor, was seeking religious freedom. Wishing to inspire the colonists to dwell in brotherly unity, he summoned them together to remind them “that if we [colonists] shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause Him to withdraw His present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-word through the world.” On the other hand, those in the Chesapeake region came for the wealth that America promised. They were there to become prosperous or die trying.
He sets up his argument by saying that there are specific steps to take during a nonviolent campaign. He then elaborates on what he did to accomplish these steps. He justified his actions by saying, “Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and establish such a creative tension that a community that has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue”(266). He also refuted how the clergymen told him his actions were untimely by stating that, “This “wait” has almost always meant “never””(267). He even discredits the clergymen even more by saying “it is easy for those who have never felt the stinging darts of segregation to say wait.” MLK’s ultimate claim is that the church is to blame for these happenings and “the judgement of God is upon the Church as never before”(276).
While both Luther and Erasmus are seeking to expose the necessity of reform in religious intuitions, both have their own distinct methods of doing so. In fact they are quite opposite to one another in their methods. Luther’s tactics of focusing on improving the faith on conscience of everyday Christians is more direct approach that directly defies the church. Erasmus’ tactic of buttering up his worries with the church in a comedic story makes for a much more subtle move that keeps the church from attacking him outright and slowly plants the idea of church reform in his audience’s minds. Luther focuses on a direct approach to reforming Christianity.
I believe the cause of all of this is because the Puritans were too committed in their religion. Puritans were very committed to their religion, that they didn’t see what was going on. Puritans punished people like Roger Williams for suggesting the colony has a separation church and state. It said the church taught people to express their own opinions and emotions, which could have caused the witch crafts to make the illness. The Puritans believed that god had a part in this.
While the first-generation Puritans believed this, their offspring who knew nothing of the religious hardship back home would rather have personal indulgences, which puts strain on the Errand. Adding on to that, the idea of being a collective group changed into the Puritans becoming more focused on defining themselves away from the Church as seen with King Phillip’s War. The war represents a change with the second and third generation Puritans who needed new, secular, enemies to define them as told by Marone when he says “The Puritans groped back to the tried and true-they found terrible new enemies to define them” (Marone 33). The Puritans defining themselves through fighting the Natives in King Phillip’s war, totally undermines the Puritans’ original enemy of being eternally damned. Furthermore, the Puritan Dilemma of the conflict of old vs new impacted the Puritans’ view of nature, as seen with the Salem Witch Trials and how God was punishing them for straying from the Errand.
The Puritan way of life dated back in the United States in the early settlement of the 1400’s and Puritan beliefs are much more than just a religious belief. The Puritans came to New England not save their souls but to initiate a "visible" kingdom of God, a society where external behavior would be according to God 's laws. This book discusses the aspiration of the Puritans to be socially righteous and their wish to force social virtue upon others. Everyone associated with the Puritan beliefs were in fact very devoted towards their beliefs, so much to the point of banishing citizens who opposed the written laws of Puritan societies. The laws and beliefs applied to everyone.
The 95 theses is a list of questions and propositions for debate. Legend has it that on October 31, 1517 Luther defiantly nailed a copy of his 95 theses to the door of the Wittenberg Castle church. In essence, his Theses called for a full reform of the Catholic church and challenged other scholars to debate with him on matters of the church policy. The 95 thesis were to be used by as the basis for a discussion on this topic.It challenged the teachings of the Catholic Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgeneces. The 95 theses are important because he helped start a little movement called the protestant reformation.It challegend the power of the Catholic Church and severly limited their control of Central and Northern Europe.
Luther Legacy pg 35) helped to replace the authority of the Church. His reason was always the bible and reason, that your salvation was yours and not that of the clergy. Traditional authority began to change, the imagination of people became more radical and there was a call to initiate reform in the Church. However, popes refused to concede anything that could weaken the power of Rome. This helped to continue the decline of the teachings and authority of the Catholic Church.