ABSTRACT A sensor is a device which coverts physical signal to the electrical signal. Thermal sensors are temperature sensing devices which are small in size and made up of thermistors. Thermal sensors are of many types: Heat flux sensors, Infrared thermometer, Thermometer, Pyrometer,Flow sensors, Vacuum sensors , semiconductor sensors etc. They found in laptops in order to sound an alarm when a certain temperature has been exceeded. They are used in electrical appliances and medical appliances, mobile communication equipment.
Cell situated biosensors may also detect unanticipated molecules by working with living cells as a sensitive element thus eradicating any limitations. The investigation about cellular microenvironment has become clear and this is owed to the invention of micro fabrication technology of semi-conductor miniaturization of investigative technology (Wang, P. et al. 2005). In biomedicine cell based biosensors are able to identify the existence and concentration of certain substances. Biosensors are able to do this is in a way that scrutinizes the outcome of pharmaceutical compound on specific physiological systems.
Biosensors show their importance in environment and healthcare industries. They serve healthcare industry by measurement of biomolecules like glucose, ethanol, lactates, choline, folic acid etc. and in case of environment the widely studied analytes are Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), river water pH and heavy metal ions content, herbicides, toxic substances etc. Work of the development of biosensors for detecting glucose was initiated as early as in 1960s. It started with the development of first glucose biosensing electrode in 1962 by Clark and Lyons.
Literature Review 2.1 Biosensor Biosensor is an analytical device used to convert biological respons into an electric signal. It involves the biological components such as microbes, enzyme, antibodies and DNA. In this case, enzyme utilize in the biological respons determine the biocatalytic activity in the process of converting enzyme-substrate into product. This typical biosensor usually have enzyme immobilized on the support system which attached to an electrode. Generally, biosensor consist of three phases which are receptor phase, transducer phase and signal amplifier phase.
Capacitive sensors consist of an inner rod with an outer shell immersed in the liquid, whose level is being measured. Thus, the capacitance is then measured between the inner rod and the outer shell with the aid of a capacitance bridge. Essentially, the sensor detects when the liquid has
The principle The principle of capacitive sensors is to measure the changes in capacitance. The electrodes of the sensor form a capacitor. An alternating voltage is applied to create an alternating electric current, which is detected by the sensor. In general,
The wireless sensor equipment is often used in healthcare applications while applying many types of portable sensors. These wearable sensors are placed on the patient body surface. They are composed of small devices like heart rate, blood pressure, thermometer, glucose sensors to measure the biophysical patient state, as illustrated in Figure 1.1. Hospital Doctors can ask about a patient's history by an application on the devices that communicate with the patient's wearable sensor network. The deployed Sensor network on the patient body surface consists of several components like thermometer for measuring body temperature, an ECG monitor and an activity recognition system that uses accelerometers.
Physicist detects the new subatomic particles by expressing the different properties of substance. The whole environmental science depends on chemistry. Chemistry is used for illuminating the origin and impact of phenomenon such as air pollution, ozone layer depletion and global warming1. The history of chemistry can be divided into four periods: 1. Alchemy 2.
These engineers are most desired by the chemical industries. This is because of their way of research, refine 7 develop new chemicals for the various uses. They find the carrer opportunities in the natural & artificial chemical producing or refining industries. These can be either in the food processor or pharmaceuticals. They also find the career opportunities in various other industries which use chemicals to manufacture their products.
With the advancement in synthetic organic chemistry and other branches of chemistry including bio-analytical sciences and biotechnology, the scope of analytical chemistry has enhanced too much higher levels. The emphasis in current use of analytical methods