The Comstock Act and Griswold v. Connecticut
The New York Times published two articles, “Breaking up the Trade in Obscene Literature-What has been Done Since March” and “7-to-2 Ruling Establishes Marriage Privileges-Stirs Debate,” each about one hundred years apart. The first article, published in 1872, is in reference to the Comstock Act and the second, published in 1965, discusses the Supreme Court case Griswold v. Connecticut. By analyzing these articles, looking at the information presented and omitted by the author and looking at the connotations of the words used to describe people or events, the popular opinion of the times can be determined and compared to show a cultural shift over time. In the 1870s, leading up to the passage of …show more content…
Connecticut. This decision repealed the Comstock law, making contraceptives, and discussion of contraceptives, legal. Leading up to this decision, the nation saw a wave of feminism spread across the nation. Women wanted to change how the conventional woman was portrayed and wanted to gain equal treatment in the workplace. In 1963, Betty Friedan published the book Feminine Mystique launched feminism to new heights and, that same year, the Equal Pay Act made it illegal to pay women less than men for the same job. With feminism taking over the nation, many women found a new sense of freedom. Between 1960 and 1975, the number of college women having se doubled, and with that came the demand for birth control, leading to the Griswold v. Connecticut …show more content…
The first article presented only the author’s point of view and refused to say the words “birth-control” or even “contraceptives.” Sadly, it only focused on how “evil” the people were who were sending out the literature, not how these women, many of whom were likely married, simply did not want any more children and needed medication and information on how to prevent pregnancy. The second article, however, addressed the issue with a more factual approach. It seemed to accept the idea that women have the right to birth control and sex education, even if the author only discussed married people. These articles are evidence of how, in one hundred years, the nation can change its entire stance on an issue. With time, people became more accepting and open about promiscuity and birth control, finally recognizing that it is a right, and not an
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Elaine Tyler May delivers a concise historical retrospective and critical analysis of the development, evolution, and impact of the birth control pill from the 1950s to present day. In her book, America and the Pill, examines the relationship of the pill to the feminist movement, scientific advances, cultural implications, domestic and international politics, and the sexual revolution. May argues cogently that the mythical assumptions and expectations of the birth control pill were too high, in which the pill would be a solution to global poverty, serve as a magical elixir for marriages to the extent it would decline the divorce rate, end out-of-wedlock pregnancies, control population growth, or the pill would generate sexual pandemonium and ruin families. May claims the real impact of the pill—it’s as a tool of empowerment for women, in which it allows them to control their own fertility and lives. May effectively transitioned between subjects, the chapters of America and the Pill are organized thematically, in
The author’s argument was to inform the public on how Margaret Sanger argues that women today are still enslaved by childbearing and abstinent couple due to the lack of misrepresentation of the Birth Control movement. The author tends to elaborate some of Margaret’s reasons of the birth control movement which was the limiting the size of families who were have extremely large families. The message is explicit because it informs the public on Margaret’s argument of women’s right to birth control as women constantly wrote her about their problems. The author get the message across by listing reasons and arguing her point of view of why the birth control movement was best for women on how it could limit and prevent a decrease in families and abstinent
Contrasting with the vinyl records industry, the Australian film industry during the 1960’s-1970s was not as successful as expected, due to the leading of American film industry. Even if it was a small boom in the film industry with movies mainly inspired by the war, it didn’t last long because of the costs of the equipment, imported from America. The movies that people around Australia could see on the 1000 screens around Australia (by 1965) were mostly American and British films for young people inspired in the American lifestyle, like Butch and Cassidy or Easy Rider. In 1961, the pill changed the meaning of sexuality.
The basis of Ms. Lowen’s article is the use of logic and evidence for each side of the debate. Those for abstinence or comprehensive education each get ten reasons to support her argument: “Abstinence from sex is the only form of pregnancy prevention that is 100% effective… Teens who break their vows of abstinence are much less likely to use contraceptives than those who do not pledge abstinence” (Lowen Sec 1/Par 4, 2/5). Presenting both sides of the issue, not only widens the audience, but also allows for information and
The fight for reproductive and family privacy in the United States began in 1964 with Griswold v. Connecticut. The appellants in this case-the Executive Director of the Planned Parenthood League of Connecticut Estelle Griswold and the Planned Parenthood 's Medical Director Dr. Lee Buxton-were arrested for giving "information, instruction, and medical advice to married persons as to the means of preventing conception" (Griswold v. Connecticut). The outcome of this case has allowed for the protection of a number of important rights, including the right to terminate a pregnancy, the right to participate in same-sex relationships, and the right to choose how one 's children are raised ("50 Years After"). In Connecticut from 1958 to 1965, it was a criminal offense for any person to use a drug or other article to prevent
Connecticut case in 1965 were no surprise because not having access to contraceptives women were getting pregnant more. Women did have access to contraception before the Comstock Law was established in 1873. However, women were limited afterwards because not having contraceptives meant they needed to take more precaution when having sexual intercourse. In the Child Trend Data Bank, it was depicted that women from 1945 to the 1960’s in the United States had the highest fertility rate due to the baby boom years as well as not having access to contraceptives. The baby boom years was a period in which birth rates were increasing tremendously after the end of World War II in 1945 due to the soldiers coming home to their
FDA approves of the first ever legal Birth Control. “Initially pioneered by Margaret Sanger and funded by Heiress Katherine McCormick. ”(“FDA Approves Pill”) Many people have waited for a legal way in the U.S. to come out that will make it easier to lower the chances of conceiving. “Sanger Opened the first birth control clinic in U.S. in 1916 in hope to encourage a more practical alternative than what was at that time of decreases conception.”
emotional strength and overall well-being. Sanger interpreted the concept of American freedom as a women being in control of how, when, and with who she wanted to reproduce. “The exercise of her right to decide how many children she will have and when she shall have them will procure for her the time necessary to the development of other faculties than that of reproduction.” There were no laws to protect women from the problems that arose with pregnancy back in the 1800-1900’s. They did not have the advancements that we have now and many women faced long hours of painful torturous labor.
The 1960’s became a key moment of social change which saw a significant shift in societal attitudes, values and patterns of family formation and gender relations. The introduction of the pill in 1961 was viewed as an ‘equaliser’ in providing women the same sexual freedom as men, aiding in a rise of promiscuity and the separation of reproduction from sex which directly opposed deeply ingrained religious values of society. Women no longer had to choose between having a family and having an occupation, and this lead to not only the de-institutionalisation of reproductive partnerships but also an increase in singleness and childlessness. This is evident in a steady decline in the crude
Taylor Hurst Kaiser AP Lang 11 November 2015 Analysis of Margaret Sanger’s Speech on Birth Control Margaret Sanger, an American birth control activist, made an announcement titled “The Children’s Era,’ at the first national birth-control conference in March of 1925. In this speech, Sanger attempts to influence her ideas and beliefs on the importance of birth control and contraceptives to the health of society’s women. She also vividly explains how controlled childbearing would apply to children who would eventually be born.
Kathrin F. Stranger Hall and David W. Hall are both professors at the University of Georgia. Stranger-Hall teaches biology, which goes hand in hand with Hall who teaches genetics. These two brains together produce intelligent conversation about sexual education. In their article, “Abstinence-Only Education and Teen Pregnancy Rates: Why We Need Comprehensive Sex Education in the U.S”, they take a stand against the current abstinence-only based education in America. They provide many statistics as to why the current education is ineffective and a solution on how to fix it.
In America and The Pill: A History of Promise, Peril, and Liberation, Elaine May Tyler examined the history of birth control in the United States. May traced the pill's conception and evolution the United States through to the twenty-first century. The book consisted of an introduction, seven chapters, and a conclusion. May approached the topic in the context of influence of suffragist and reformer Margaret Sanger's advocacy originating in the late Progressive Era and Cold War American ideology, through to the emerging movements of the sexual revolution and the feminist movement, including acknowledging political, religious, racial, socio-economic, and gender bias factors.
In general those who were oppressed in terms of race and class were able to see the birth control movement from a wider lenses and therefore were able to incorporate it into other movements, despite the inherent disadvantages that they faced. Nonetheless, to this day, there are still major disparities in how people of not only different ethnicities and classes, but different income levels, education levels, and socioeconomic status use birth control. There is still work to be done in order to make birth control more accessible to everyone of all races, incomes, religions, beliefs, and
As the feminist movement evolved, women began to question their traditional sexual roles. Feminists made it clear that single or not, women were all entitled to their sexual desires and freedoms. However for conservatives, this sexual revolution seemed to be an excuse for women to be promiscuous and an attack on the “foundation of American society”- family (American Experience, 2001). This clash of opinions amongst the two groups ultimately created a large debate over the pill. The Pill essentially became a convenient scapegoat for this so called sexual revolution among conservatives.